Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 3/2016

22-02-2016 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Ontological Addiction: Classification, Etiology, and Treatment

Auteurs: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Despite the fact that there is increasing integration of Buddhist principles and practices into Western mental health and applied psychological disciplines, there appears to be limited understanding in Western psychology of the assumptions that underlie a Buddhist model of mental illness. The concept of ontological addiction was introduced and formulated in order to narrow some of the disconnect between Buddhist and Western models of mental illness and to foster effective assimilation of Buddhist practices and principles into mental health research and practice. Ontological addiction refers to the maladaptive condition whereby an individual is addicted to the belief that they inherently exist. The purposes of the present paper are to (i) classify ontological addiction in terms of its definition, symptoms, prevalence, and functional consequences, (ii) examine the etiology of the condition, and (iii) appraise both the traditional Buddhist and contemporary empirical literature in order to outline effective treatment strategies. An assessment of the extent to which ontological addiction meets the clinical criteria for addiction suggests that ontological addiction is a chronic and valid—albeit functionally distinct (i.e., when compared to chemical and behavioral addictions)—form of addiction. However, despite the protracted and pervasive nature of the condition, recent empirical findings add support to ancient Buddhist teachings and suggest that addiction to selfhood can be overcome by a treatment process involving phases of (i) becoming aware of the imputed self, (ii) deconstructing the imputed self, and (iii) reconstructing a dynamic and non-dual self.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychological Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author. American Psychological Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
go back to reference Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111, 33–51. CrossRefPubMed Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111, 33–51. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. In A. Kingstone & M. B. Miller (Eds.), The year in cognitive neuroscience 2008 (pp. 1–38). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. In A. Kingstone & M. B. Miller (Eds.), The year in cognitive neuroscience 2008 (pp. 1–38). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
go back to reference Chah, A. (2011). The collected teachings of Ajahn Chah. Northumberland: Aruna Publications. Chah, A. (2011). The collected teachings of Ajahn Chah. Northumberland: Aruna Publications.
go back to reference Chan, W. S. (2008). Psychological attachment, no-self and Chan Buddhist mind therapy. Contemporary Buddhism, 9, 253–264. CrossRef Chan, W. S. (2008). Psychological attachment, no-self and Chan Buddhist mind therapy. Contemporary Buddhism, 9, 253–264. CrossRef
go back to reference Claus, E. D., Ewing, S. W. F., Filbey, F. M., Sabbineni, A., & Hutchison, K. E. (2011). Identifying neurobiological phenotypes associated with alcohol use disorder severity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 2086–2096. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Claus, E. D., Ewing, S. W. F., Filbey, F. M., Sabbineni, A., & Hutchison, K. E. (2011). Identifying neurobiological phenotypes associated with alcohol use disorder severity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 2086–2096. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Engel, G. L. (1978). The biopsychosocial model and the education of health professionals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 310, 169–187. CrossRefPubMed Engel, G. L. (1978). The biopsychosocial model and the education of health professionals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 310, 169–187. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gampopa. (1998). The jewel ornament of liberation: the wish-fulfilling gem of the noble teachings. New York: Snow Lion Publications. Gampopa. (1998). The jewel ornament of liberation: the wish-fulfilling gem of the noble teachings. New York: Snow Lion Publications.
go back to reference Gergen, K. (2009). Relational being. New York: Oxford University Press. Gergen, K. (2009). Relational being. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Ghaemi, S. N. (2009). The rise and fall of the biopsychosocial model. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 3–4. CrossRefPubMed Ghaemi, S. N. (2009). The rise and fall of the biopsychosocial model. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 3–4. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 191–197. Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 191–197.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J., Bond, F., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. CrossRefPubMed Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J., Bond, F., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Houlihan, S. D., & Brewer, J. A. (2015). The emerging science of mindfulness as a treatment for addiction. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived approaches in mental health and addiction. New York: Springer. Houlihan, S. D., & Brewer, J. A. (2015). The emerging science of mindfulness as a treatment for addiction. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived approaches in mental health and addiction. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E. M., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion, 8, 720–724. CrossRefPubMed Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E. M., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion, 8, 720–724. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jung, C. G. (1981). The archetypes and the collective unconscious, collected works 9 (1) (2nd ed.). Princeton: Bollingen. Jung, C. G. (1981). The archetypes and the collective unconscious, collected works 9 (1) (2nd ed.). Princeton: Bollingen.
go back to reference Kelly, B. D. (2015). Compassion, cognition and the illusion of self: Buddhist notes towards more skilful engagement with diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived approaches in mental health and addiction. New York: Springer. Kelly, B. D. (2015). Compassion, cognition and the illusion of self: Buddhist notes towards more skilful engagement with diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived approaches in mental health and addiction. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Keysers, C. (2011). The empathic brain: how the discovery of mirror neurons changes our understanding of human nature. Chicago: Social Brain Press. Keysers, C. (2011). The empathic brain: how the discovery of mirror neurons changes our understanding of human nature. Chicago: Social Brain Press.
go back to reference Khyentse, D. (2007). The heart of compassion: the thirty-seven verses on the practice of a Bodhisattva. Boston: Shambhala Publications. Khyentse, D. (2007). The heart of compassion: the thirty-seven verses on the practice of a Bodhisattva. Boston: Shambhala Publications.
go back to reference Lama, D. (2001). Stages of meditation: training the mind for wisdom. London: Rider. Lama, D. (2001). Stages of meditation: training the mind for wisdom. London: Rider.
go back to reference Lama, D., & Berzin, A. (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu tradition of Mahamudra. New York: Snow Lion Publications. Lama, D., & Berzin, A. (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu tradition of Mahamudra. New York: Snow Lion Publications.
go back to reference Marra, M. (1988). The development of mappō thought in Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 15, 26–27. Marra, M. (1988). The development of mappō thought in Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 15, 26–27.
go back to reference Maugans, T. A., & Wadland, W. C. (1991). Religion and family medicine: a survey of physicians and patients. Journal of Family Practice, 32, 210–213. PubMed Maugans, T. A., & Wadland, W. C. (1991). Religion and family medicine: a survey of physicians and patients. Journal of Family Practice, 32, 210–213. PubMed
go back to reference Melzack, R. (1991). From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, 6(Suppl), S121–S126. Melzack, R. (1991). From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, 6(Suppl), S121–S126.
go back to reference Nanamoli, B., & Bodhi, B. (2009). Majjhima Nikaya: the Liddle length discourses of the Buddha (4th ed.). Massachuesetts: Wisdom Publications. Nanamoli, B., & Bodhi, B. (2009). Majjhima Nikaya: the Liddle length discourses of the Buddha (4th ed.). Massachuesetts: Wisdom Publications.
go back to reference Nhat Hanh, T. (1992). The sun my heart. London: Rider. Nhat Hanh, T. (1992). The sun my heart. London: Rider.
go back to reference Norbu, C. & Clemente, A. (1999). The supreme source. The fundamental Tantra of the Dzogchen Semde. New York: Snow Lion Publications. Norbu, C. & Clemente, A. (1999). The supreme source. The fundamental Tantra of the Dzogchen Semde. New York: Snow Lion Publications.
go back to reference Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: a study of a science (Formulations of the person and the social context, Vol. 3, pp. 184–256). New York: McGraw Hill. Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: a study of a science (Formulations of the person and the social context, Vol. 3, pp. 184–256). New York: McGraw Hill.
go back to reference Sahdra, B. K., Shaver, P. R., & Brown, K. W. (2010). A scale to measure non-attachment: a Buddhist complement to western research on attachment and adaptive functioning. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 116–127. CrossRefPubMed Sahdra, B. K., Shaver, P. R., & Brown, K. W. (2010). A scale to measure non-attachment: a Buddhist complement to western research on attachment and adaptive functioning. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 116–127. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2014a). Mindfulness of death. Mindfulness, 5, 464–466. Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2014a). Mindfulness of death. Mindfulness, 5, 464–466.
go back to reference Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2014b). Searching for the present moment. Mindfulness, 5, 104–107. Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2014b). Searching for the present moment. Mindfulness, 5, 104–107.
go back to reference Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015a). The lineage of mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6, 141–145. CrossRef Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015a). The lineage of mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6, 141–145. CrossRef
go back to reference Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015b). Managers’ experiences of meditation awareness training. Mindfulness, 6, 899–909. CrossRef Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015b). Managers’ experiences of meditation awareness training. Mindfulness, 6, 899–909. CrossRef
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 63–71. CrossRefPubMed Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 63–71. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: toward effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 123–137. CrossRef Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: toward effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 123–137. CrossRef
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Dunn, T., Singh, N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Meditation awareness training for work-related wellbeing and job performance: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 806–823. CrossRef Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Dunn, T., Singh, N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Meditation awareness training for work-related wellbeing and job performance: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 806–823. CrossRef
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Singh, N. N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015a). Mindfulness of emptiness and the emptiness of mindfulness. In E. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Buddhist foundations of mindfulness (pp. 159–178). New York: Springer. CrossRef Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Singh, N. N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015a). Mindfulness of emptiness and the emptiness of mindfulness. In E. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Buddhist foundations of mindfulness (pp. 159–178). New York: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Compare, A., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015b). Buddhist-derived loving-kindness and compassion meditation for the treatment of psychopathology: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 6, 1161–1180. CrossRef Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Compare, A., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015b). Buddhist-derived loving-kindness and compassion meditation for the treatment of psychopathology: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 6, 1161–1180. CrossRef
go back to reference Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, J., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., & McAleavey, K. M. (2007). Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 31, 749–771. CrossRefPubMed Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, J., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., & McAleavey, K. M. (2007). Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 31, 749–771. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Karazia, B. T., Singh, A. D. A., Singh, A. N. A., & Singh, J. (2013). A mindfulness-based smoking cessation program for individuals with mild intellectual disability. Mindfulness, 4, 148–157. CrossRef Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Karazia, B. T., Singh, A. D. A., Singh, A. N. A., & Singh, J. (2013). A mindfulness-based smoking cessation program for individuals with mild intellectual disability. Mindfulness, 4, 148–157. CrossRef
go back to reference Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social psychology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social psychology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Sogyal, R. (1998). The Tibetan book of living and dying. London: Rider. Sogyal, R. (1998). The Tibetan book of living and dying. London: Rider.
go back to reference Trungpa, C. (2002). Cutting through spiritual materialism. Boston: Shambala. Trungpa, C. (2002). Cutting through spiritual materialism. Boston: Shambala.
go back to reference Tsong-Kha-pa. (2004). In J. W. Cutler, G. Newland, & The Lamrim Chenmo Translation committee, Trans (Eds.), The great treatise on the stages of the path to enlightenment (Vol. 1). New York: Snow Lion Publications. Tsong-Kha-pa. (2004). In J. W. Cutler, G. Newland, & The Lamrim Chenmo Translation committee, Trans (Eds.), The great treatise on the stages of the path to enlightenment (Vol. 1). New York: Snow Lion Publications.
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015a). Mindfulness of the four noble truths. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Buddhist foundations of mindfulness (pp. 9–27). New York: Springer. CrossRef Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015a). Mindfulness of the four noble truths. In E. Y. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Buddhist foundations of mindfulness (pp. 9–27). New York: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015b). Buddhist emptiness theory: implications for psychology. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015b). Buddhist emptiness theory: implications for psychology. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015c). There is only one mindfulness: why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness, 6, 49–56. CrossRef Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015c). There is only one mindfulness: why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness, 6, 49–56. CrossRef
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015d). Experiences of meditation awareness training among individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Mindfulness. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-015-0458-8. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015d). Experiences of meditation awareness training among individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Mindfulness. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-015-0458-8.
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015e). Mindfulness in mental health: a critical reflection. Journal of Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Brain Stimulation, 1(1), 102. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015e). Mindfulness in mental health: a critical reflection. Journal of Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Brain Stimulation, 1(1), 102.
go back to reference Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015f). Towards a second-generation of mindfulness-based interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 591–592. CrossRefPubMed Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. (2015f). Towards a second-generation of mindfulness-based interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 591–592. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester: Wiley. Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester: Wiley.
go back to reference Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., & Ford, J. M. (2012). Default mode network activity and connectivity in psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 49–76. CrossRefPubMed Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., & Ford, J. M. (2012). Default mode network activity and connectivity in psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 49–76. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. (2000). Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 413–426. WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. (2000). Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 413–426.
go back to reference Yang, C., & Lukoff, D. (2006). Working with spiritual issues. Psychiatric Annals, 36, 168–174. Yang, C., & Lukoff, D. (2006). Working with spiritual issues. Psychiatric Annals, 36, 168–174.
Metagegevens
Titel
Ontological Addiction: Classification, Etiology, and Treatment
Auteurs
Edo Shonin
William Van Gordon
Mark D. Griffiths
Publicatiedatum
22-02-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2016
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0501-4

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2016

Mindfulness 3/2016 Naar de uitgave