Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
We sought to investigate the relationships between negative family factors such as insecure attachment and adverse parental rearing, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a large sample of non-clinical children (N = 237) aged 9 to 12 years. All children completed a set of self-report questionnaires including a single-item measure of attachment style towards the mother and the father as well as an index of perceived parental rearing behaviors. Further, measures of internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression) were completed. Results showed that perceived rearing behaviors of both mother and father (in particular rejection and anxious rearing) consistently accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Attachment style was found to play a less prominent role. Some support for gender-specific relationships was found, indicating that the presence of negative family factors in fathers had more impact on symptoms in boys, whereas the presence of such factors in the mothers had more influence on symptoms in girls. Altogether, these results suggest that in addition to common pathways by which both parents promote psychopathological symptoms in children, there may also be separate pathways by which the father or the mother may have a unique impact on the development of such symptoms in boys or girls respectively.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bartels, M., Hudziak, J. J., Boomsma, D. I., Rietveld, M. J. H., Van Beijsterveldt, T. C. E. M., & Van den Oord, E. J. C. G. (2003). A study of parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing problem behavior in 12-year-old twins. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 42, 1351–1359. CrossRef
Bögels, S. M., & Van Melick, M. (2004). The relationship between child-report, parent self-report, and partner report of perceived parental rearing behaviors and anxiety in children and parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1583–1596. CrossRef
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Campos, J. J., Barrett, K. C., Lamb, M. E., Goldsmith, H. H., & Stenberg, C. (1983). Socioemotional development. In M. M. Haidt, & J. J. Camps (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Volume 2. Infancy and psychobiology (pp.783–915). New York: Wiley.
Castro, J., Toro, J., Van der Ende, J., & Arrindell, W. A. (1993). Exploring the feasibility of assessing perceived parental rearing styles in Spanish children with the EMBU. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39, 47–57. PubMed
Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 377–395.
Essau, C. A., & Petermann, F. (1999). Depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Northvale, NJ, US: Jason Aronson, Inc.
Garber, J., Robinson, N. S., & Valentiner, D. (1997). The relation between parenting and adolescent depression: Self-worth as a mediator. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 12–33.
George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1987). The adult attachment interview. Berkeley: Unpublished manuscript, University of California .
Ginsburg, G. S., Siqueland, L., Masia-Warner, C., & Hedtke, K. A. (2004). Anxiety disorders in children: Family matters. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11, 28–43. CrossRef
Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2002). Paternal child-rearing style and child social anxiety: investigation of child perceptions and actual father behavior. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 259–267. CrossRef
Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., & Endriga, M. C. (1991). Attachment security in preschoolers with and without externalizing problems: A replication. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 413–430. CrossRef
Greenberg, M. T. (1999). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 469–496). New York: Guilford Press.
Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Parent-child interaction and anxiety disorders: an observational study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 1411–1427. CrossRef
Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1988). An adult attachment classification system. Berkeley: Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Department of Psychology.
Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (1998). Perceived parental rearing behaviour and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal children. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 1199–1206. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C. M. G. Van Brakel, A. (2003a). Assessment of anxious rearing behaviors with a modified version of “Egna Minnen Besträffende Uppfostran” Questionnaire for Children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 229–237. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C. M. G., & Van den Berg, S. (2003b). Internalizing and externalizing problems as correlates of self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing in normal adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 171–183. CrossRef
Renken, B., Egeland, B., Marvinney, D., Mangelsdorf, S., & Sroufe, L. A. (1989). Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive withdrawal in early elementary school. Journal of Personality, 5, 257–281. CrossRef
Siqueland, L., Kendall, P. C., & Steinberg, L. (1996). Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and family interaction. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 225–237. CrossRef
Troy, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (1987). Victimisation of pre-schoolers: Role of attachment relationship history. Journal of the American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 166–172. PubMed
Weissman, M. M., & Olfson, M. (1995). Depression in women: Implications for health care research. Science, 269, 799–801. PubMed
Wenar, C., & Kerig, P. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: From infancy through adolescence (fourth edition). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
- On the Links Between Attachment Style, Parental Rearing Behaviors, and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Non-Clinical Children
Ph.D. Jeffrey Roelofs
Ph.D. Cor Meesters
M.Sc. Mijke ter Huurne
M.Sc. Lotte Bamelis
Ph.D. Peter Muris
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers