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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 9/2019

21-03-2019

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Psychological Distress and Rumination

Auteurs: Tinne Buelens, Koen Luyckx, Amarendra Gandhi, Glenn Kiekens, Laurence Claes

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 9/2019

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Abstract

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes a significant mental health concern that is highly prevalent in adolescence. Theoretical accounts and empirical research suggest that, in the short-term, NSSI may provide instant relief from intense psychological distress and ruminative thoughts. However, much less is known about these associations over time throughout adolescence. Therefore, we designed a three-year longitudinal study and examined the bidirectional prospective associations between psychological distress, rumination, and NSSI. We assessed 528 secondary school students (at Time 1: Mean age = 15.0 years, SD = 1.85, range 11 to 19 years, 50.6% female, 98.7% of Belgian nationality) using self-report questionnaires at three annual measurement points. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling was performed to examine the directionality of associations. Results indicated positive bidirectional associations between (1) distress and NSSI; and positive unidirectional associations between (2) distress and rumination, and (3) NSSI and rumination. The current study embeds NSSI in a broader network of cognitive and emotional antecedents and consequents, and is the first to consider the long-term influence these components exert on each other. As NSSI may play a significant part in increasing distress and rumination, the behaviour potentially sustains a longer-term maladaptive cycle between emotion, cognition, and NSSI. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
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1
Additionally, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on HADS at T1 and examined measurement invariance of the one-factor solution of the HADS. In the CFA, the two-factor structure did not converge and HADS met partial scalar measurement invariance. Based on these results, we retained the more parsimonious one-factor HADS structure in the current study.
 
2
The same effect of age was found at T2 (Fwelch (1, 34) = 7.68, p = 0.009), but not at T3 (F (1, 322) = 1.38, p = 0.241).
 
3
We examined moderation by sex with multigroup longitudinal cross-lagged models. Due to the lower number of males engaging in NSSI in our sample, these findings should be interpreted tentatively. However, our results showed that the fit of the model with equally constrained mediation across males and females was similar to the fit of the unconstrained gender mediation model (i.e., constrained model fit: χ2= 82.53; RMSEA = 0.07; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.92 and unconstrained model fit: χ2= 77.24; RMSEA = 0.06; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.94). This suggests that the strength of the reported associations is similar between males and females.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Psychological Distress and Rumination
Auteurs
Tinne Buelens
Koen Luyckx
Amarendra Gandhi
Glenn Kiekens
Laurence Claes
Publicatiedatum
21-03-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 9/2019
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00531-8