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15-02-2021 | Original Article

Non-magnitude sources of bias on duration judgements for blank intervals: conceptual relatedness of interval markers reduces subjective interval duration

Auteurs: Launa C. Leboe-McGowan, Jason P. Leboe-McGowan, Janique Fortier, Erin J. Dowling

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1/2022

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Abstract

We report three experiments in which the events flanking a temporal interval were either related or unrelated, based on overlap in the letter identity of single letters (Experiment 1), in the conceptual congruency of color words and colored rectangles (Experiment 2), or in the conceptual congruency of sentence stems and their terminal words (Experiment 3). In all cases, we observed a bias for participants to judge the duration of temporal intervals as shorter when the flanking events were related. We draw an analogy between these temporal judgement distortions and those reported elsewhere (Alards-Tomalin et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40(2):555–566, 2014) that revealed that the similarity in the relative magnitude of flanking events generate the same type of bias on duration judgements. The observation that non-magnitude dimensions of relatedness between flanking events can also bias duration judgements raise questions about the applicability of two influential theoretical frameworks for understanding the distorting effects that non-temporal stimulus dimensions can have on duration judgments, A Theory of Magnitude (Buetl and Walsh in Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 12:1831–1840, 2009, Walsh in Trends Cogn Sci 7:483–488, 2003) and the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (e.g., Lakoff and Johnson in Philosophy in the flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. Basic Books, New York, 1999). In our general discussion, we consider a number of alternative frameworks that may account for these findings.
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1
Similarly, it is conceivable that encountering only low constraint sentence stems in the practice phase may have had a biasing effect on our participants. Perhaps participants experienced an expectancy violation when they encountered high constraint stems when they encountered then during the experimental trials? If so, might that explain why participants were biased to judge intervals following High Constraint stems as long? We are not convinced that participants carried strong expectations about the type of sentence stems that they encountered during the practice phase into the experimental session. Participants knew they were in a warm-up phase and we expect that they were primarily focused on trying to get a sense of the difference between long and short intervals. Nevertheless, we would again point out that a low probability of marker relatedness produced a bias to judge intervals as shorter in Experiments 1 and 2. Suggesting that an expectancy violation was the source of participants’ bias to judge intervals as long on High Constraint trials in Experiment 3 is not compatible with a holistic consideration of the results of our three experiments.
 
2
One of our reviewers pointed out that, although we equated the number of AX Repetition and XB Repetition trials in Experiments 1 and 2, the likelihood of encountering an AX letter repetition was a bit lower than the likelihood of encountering an XB letter repetition or a colored rectangle/color word sequence. Given any letter or color word as the A item in those experiments, the likelihood that the X item would match was .10 (40 AX Repetition trials/400 total trials) in Experiment 1 and .25 (48 AX Congruent experimental trials/192 total experimental trials) in Experiment 2. However, given the presentation of non-matching AX items, the likelihood that the B item would match the preceding X item was about .11 (40 XB Repetition trials/40 XB Repetition trials + 320 No Repetition trials) in Experiment 1 and about .33 (48 XB Congruent trials/48 XB Congruent trials + 96 No Repetition trials) in Experiment 2. As a result, although participants were less likely to encounter matching AX and XB items than non-matching items, matching XB items would have been somewhat more expected than matching AX items.
Across both experiments, our results establish that participants’ likelihood of making a long-short judgement was lower on AX related trials than on XB related trials. Despite the possible difference in whether participants expected a relatedness between AX items vs. between XB items in Experiments 1 and 2, encountering a match in either case biased participants to judge the interval separating them as shorter. Consequently, we were curious as to whether the potential difference in participants’ expectations that they would encounter matching AX vs. XB markers generated a difference between their likelihood of judging AX intervals as short-long and XB intervals as long-short. In Experiment 1, participants judged AX Repetition intervals as short-long on .530 of trials and XB Repetition intervals as long-short on .518 of trials. In Experiment 2, participants judged AX Congruent intervals as short-long on .561 of trials and XB Congruent intervals as long-short on .555 of trials. Although, in both experiments, participants’ likelihood of judging intervals marked by related items was nominally higher when AX items were related than when XB items were related, these differences were not statistically significant. Thus, we are unable to make any strong inferences based on these differences. If differences in the participants’ expectations for encountering a related AX vs. XB items contributed to our results, the effect was quite subtle.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Non-magnitude sources of bias on duration judgements for blank intervals: conceptual relatedness of interval markers reduces subjective interval duration
Auteurs
Launa C. Leboe-McGowan
Jason P. Leboe-McGowan
Janique Fortier
Erin J. Dowling
Publicatiedatum
15-02-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-021-01482-w

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