Accelerating diabetes rates have resulted in a global public health epidemic. Lifestyle change is a cornerstone of care, yet regimen demands may result in adherence difficulties. Distress, depression, and other psychosocial concerns are higher in those with diabetes. While interventions, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program appear to be effective, further research is needed to support the translation of interventions to prevent diabetes. Studies assessing optimal approaches to promoting effective decision making, coping and adherence are needed. More information is needed to evaluate the influence and potential of emerging technologies on intervention delivery and quality of life in children and adults with diabetes. Theoretically informed, interdisciplinary studies that consider ecological models are needed to develop a roadmap for policies and diabetes management recommendations. Reduction of diabetes-related health disparities is a critical area for future studies. Behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners are poised to address these and other proposed future research directions to advance diabetes prevention and management.