Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2019

30-01-2018 | Original Paper

Network Analysis of Anxiety in the Autism Realm

Auteurs: Farhad Montazeri, Annelies de Bildt, Vera Dekker, George M. Anderson

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 6/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The anxiety and autism realms are each complicated and heterogeneous, and relationships between the two areas are especially complex. Network analysis offers a promising approach to the phenotypic complexities of typical and atypical human behavior. The Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) was used to assess anxiety in 126 high-functioning 9–13 year-olds with ASDs. Network graphs of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule items and RCADS anxiety total score, social, generalized, panic and separation anxiety subscores consistently found the anxiety node (score) to be highly peripheral. Also, the networks of RCADS anxiety items themselves were similar for the ASDs group and a general population comparison group (n = 2017). The results suggest anxiety is not a central part of autism and that anxiety is dynamically similar (aspects of anxiety relate to one another in a similar manner) in high-functioning autism and the general population.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Anderson, G. M. (2008). The potential role for emergence in autism. Autism Research, 1, 18–30. CrossRef Anderson, G. M. (2008). The potential role for emergence in autism. Autism Research, 1, 18–30. CrossRef
go back to reference Anderson, G. M., Montazeri, F., & De Bildt, A. (2015). Network approach to autistic traits: Group and subgroup analyses of ADOS item scores. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3115–3132. CrossRef Anderson, G. M., Montazeri, F., & De Bildt, A. (2015). Network approach to autistic traits: Group and subgroup analyses of ADOS item scores. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3115–3132. CrossRef
go back to reference Barrett, L. F. (2017). Functionalism cannot save the classical view of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 34–36. CrossRef Barrett, L. F. (2017). Functionalism cannot save the classical view of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 34–36. CrossRef
go back to reference Bellini, S. (2006). The development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(3), 138–145. CrossRef Bellini, S. (2006). The development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(3), 138–145. CrossRef
go back to reference Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. (2013). Network analysis: An integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91–121. CrossRef Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. (2013). Network analysis: An integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Bringmann, L. F., Vissers, N., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Kuppens, P., Peeters, F., Borsboom, D., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2013). A network approach to psychopathology: New insights into clinical longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e60188. CrossRef Bringmann, L. F., Vissers, N., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Kuppens, P., Peeters, F., Borsboom, D., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2013). A network approach to psychopathology: New insights into clinical longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e60188. CrossRef
go back to reference Chang, Y. C., Quan, J., & Wood, J. J. (2012). Effects of anxiety disorder severity on social functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disability, 24(3), 235–245. CrossRef Chang, Y. C., Quan, J., & Wood, J. J. (2012). Effects of anxiety disorder severity on social functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disability, 24(3), 235–245. CrossRef
go back to reference Cholemkery, H., Mojica, L., Rohrmann, S., Gensthaler, A., & Freitag, C. M. (2014). Can autism spectrum disorders and social anxiety disorders be differentiated by the social responsiveness scale in children and adolescents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(5), 1168–1182. CrossRef Cholemkery, H., Mojica, L., Rohrmann, S., Gensthaler, A., & Freitag, C. M. (2014). Can autism spectrum disorders and social anxiety disorders be differentiated by the social responsiveness scale in children and adolescents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(5), 1168–1182. CrossRef
go back to reference Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. CrossRef Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. CrossRef
go back to reference Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L., & Borsboom, D. (2010a). Comorbidity: A network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 137–193. CrossRef Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L., & Borsboom, D. (2010a). Comorbidity: A network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 137–193. CrossRef
go back to reference Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L., & Borsboom, D. (2010b). Complex realities require complex theories: Refining and extending the network approach to mental disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 178–193. CrossRef Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L., & Borsboom, D. (2010b). Complex realities require complex theories: Refining and extending the network approach to mental disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 178–193. CrossRef
go back to reference Dekker, V., Nauta, M. H., Mulder, E. J., Timmerman, M. E., & de Bildt, A. (2014). A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders: Generalization of skills by training parents and teachers? BMC Psychiatry, 14, 189. CrossRef Dekker, V., Nauta, M. H., Mulder, E. J., Timmerman, M. E., & de Bildt, A. (2014). A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders: Generalization of skills by training parents and teachers? BMC Psychiatry, 14, 189. CrossRef
go back to reference Duifhuis, E. A., den Boer, J. C., Doornbos, A., Buitelaar, J. K., Oosterling, I. J., & Klip, H. (2017). The effect of pivotal response treatment in children with autism spectrum disorders: A non-randomized study with a blinded outcome measure. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 231–242. CrossRef Duifhuis, E. A., den Boer, J. C., Doornbos, A., Buitelaar, J. K., Oosterling, I. J., & Klip, H. (2017). The effect of pivotal response treatment in children with autism spectrum disorders: A non-randomized study with a blinded outcome measure. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 231–242. CrossRef
go back to reference Eussen, M. L., Van Gool, A. R., Verheij, F., De Nijs, P. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Greaves-Lord, K. (2013). The association of quality of social relations, symptom severity and intelligence with anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 17(6), 723–735. CrossRef Eussen, M. L., Van Gool, A. R., Verheij, F., De Nijs, P. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Greaves-Lord, K. (2013). The association of quality of social relations, symptom severity and intelligence with anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 17(6), 723–735. CrossRef
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., Devincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-age children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism, 9, 392–415. CrossRef Gadow, K. D., Devincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-age children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism, 9, 392–415. CrossRef
go back to reference Hallett, V., Ronald, A., Colvert, E., Ames, C., Woodhouse, E., Lietz, S., Garnett, R., Gillan, N., Rijsdijk, F., Scahill, L., Bolton, P., & Happé, F. (2013). Exploring anxiety symptoms in a large-scale twin study of children with autism spectrum disorders, their co-twins and controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 1176–1185. CrossRef Hallett, V., Ronald, A., Colvert, E., Ames, C., Woodhouse, E., Lietz, S., Garnett, R., Gillan, N., Rijsdijk, F., Scahill, L., Bolton, P., & Happé, F. (2013). Exploring anxiety symptoms in a large-scale twin study of children with autism spectrum disorders, their co-twins and controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 1176–1185. CrossRef
go back to reference Happe, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1218–1220. CrossRef Happe, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1218–1220. CrossRef
go back to reference Heeren, A., & McNally, R. J. (2016). An integrative network approach to social anxiety disorder: The complex dynamic interplay among attentional bias for threat, attentional control, and symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 42, 95–104. CrossRef Heeren, A., & McNally, R. J. (2016). An integrative network approach to social anxiety disorder: The complex dynamic interplay among attentional bias for threat, attentional control, and symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 42, 95–104. CrossRef
go back to reference Huisman, M., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A., Minderaa, R. B., De Bildt, A., Huizink, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2008). Cohort profile: The Dutch ‘tracking adolescents’ individual lives survey’. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37(6), 1227–1235. CrossRef Huisman, M., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A., Minderaa, R. B., De Bildt, A., Huizink, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2008). Cohort profile: The Dutch ‘tracking adolescents’ individual lives survey’. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37(6), 1227–1235. CrossRef
go back to reference Jeste, S. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2014). Disentangling the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder through genetic findings. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10, 74–81. CrossRef Jeste, S. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2014). Disentangling the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder through genetic findings. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10, 74–81. CrossRef
go back to reference Kaat, A. J., & Lecavalier, L. (2015). Reliability and validity of parent- and child-rated anxiety measures in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3219–3231. CrossRef Kaat, A. J., & Lecavalier, L. (2015). Reliability and validity of parent- and child-rated anxiety measures in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3219–3231. CrossRef
go back to reference Kamada, T., & Kawai, S. (1989). An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs. Information Processing Letters, 31(1), 7–15. CrossRef Kamada, T., & Kawai, S. (1989). An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs. Information Processing Letters, 31(1), 7–15. CrossRef
go back to reference Kerns, C. M., Kendall, P. C., Berry, L., Souders, M. C., Franklin, M. E., Schultz, R. T., Miller, J., & Herrington, J. (2014). Traditional and atypical presentations of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2851–2861. CrossRef Kerns, C. M., Kendall, P. C., Berry, L., Souders, M. C., Franklin, M. E., Schultz, R. T., Miller, J., & Herrington, J. (2014). Traditional and atypical presentations of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2851–2861. CrossRef
go back to reference LeDoux, J. E., & Pine, D. S. (2016). Using Neuroscience to help understand fear and anxiety: A two-system framework. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(11), 1083–1093. CrossRef LeDoux, J. E., & Pine, D. S. (2016). Using Neuroscience to help understand fear and anxiety: A two-system framework. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(11), 1083–1093. CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, M., Aggen, S. H., Otowa, T., Castelao, E., Preisig, M., Grabe, H. J., Hartman, C. A., Oldehinkel, A. J., Middeldorp, C. M., Tiemeier, H., & Hettema, J. M. (2016). Assessment and characterization of phenotypic heterogeneity of anxiety disorders across five large cohorts. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 25(4), 255–266. CrossRef Lee, M., Aggen, S. H., Otowa, T., Castelao, E., Preisig, M., Grabe, H. J., Hartman, C. A., Oldehinkel, A. J., Middeldorp, C. M., Tiemeier, H., & Hettema, J. M. (2016). Assessment and characterization of phenotypic heterogeneity of anxiety disorders across five large cohorts. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 25(4), 255–266. CrossRef
go back to reference Lenroot, R. K., & Yeung, P. K. (2013). Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorders: What have we learned from neuroimaging studies? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 733. CrossRef Lenroot, R. K., & Yeung, P. K. (2013). Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorders: What have we learned from neuroimaging studies? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 733. CrossRef
go back to reference Lindquist, K. A., Siegel, E. H., Quigley, K. S., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). The hundred-year emotion war: Are emotions natural kinds or psychological constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, & Bench (2011). Psychological Bulletin, 139, 255–263. CrossRef Lindquist, K. A., Siegel, E. H., Quigley, K. S., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). The hundred-year emotion war: Are emotions natural kinds or psychological constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, & Bench (2011). Psychological Bulletin, 139, 255–263. CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, Y., Slotine, J., & Barabási, A. (2011). Controllability of complex networks. Nature, 473, 167. CrossRef Liu, Y., Slotine, J., & Barabási, A. (2011). Controllability of complex networks. Nature, 473, 167. CrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Manual. Los Angeles: WPS. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Manual. Los Angeles: WPS.
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule, second edition (ADOS-2) manual (Part I): Modules 1–4. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule, second edition (ADOS-2) manual (Part I): Modules 1–4. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Maddox, B. B., & White, S. W. (2015). Comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3949–3960. CrossRef Maddox, B. B., & White, S. W. (2015). Comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3949–3960. CrossRef
go back to reference Muris, P., Steerneman, P., Merckelbach, H., Holdrinet, I., & Meesters, C. (1998). Comorbid anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(4), 387–393. CrossRef Muris, P., Steerneman, P., Merckelbach, H., Holdrinet, I., & Meesters, C. (1998). Comorbid anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(4), 387–393. CrossRef
go back to reference Pelphrey, K. A., Shultz, S., Hudac, C. M., & Vander Wyk, B. C. (2011) Research review: Constraining heterogeneity: The social brain and its development in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 631–644. CrossRef Pelphrey, K. A., Shultz, S., Hudac, C. M., & Vander Wyk, B. C. (2011) Research review: Constraining heterogeneity: The social brain and its development in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 631–644. CrossRef
go back to reference Piqueras, J. A., Martín-Vivar, M., Sandin, B., Luis, S., C., & Pineda, D. (2017). The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 218, 153–169. CrossRef Piqueras, J. A., Martín-Vivar, M., Sandin, B., Luis, S., C., & Pineda, D. (2017). The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 218, 153–169. CrossRef
go back to reference Raymond, J. G., Steele, J. D., & Seriès, P. (2017). Modeling trait anxiety: From computational processes to personality. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 1. CrossRef Raymond, J. G., Steele, J. D., & Seriès, P. (2017). Modeling trait anxiety: From computational processes to personality. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 1. CrossRef
go back to reference Rodgers, J., Wigham, S., McConachie, H., Freeston, M., Honey, E., & Parr, J. R. (2016). Development of the Anxiety Scale for Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASC-ASD). Autism Research, 9, 1205–1215. CrossRef Rodgers, J., Wigham, S., McConachie, H., Freeston, M., Honey, E., & Parr, J. R. (2016). Development of the Anxiety Scale for Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASC-ASD). Autism Research, 9, 1205–1215. CrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Shackman, A. J., Fox, A. S., Oler, J. A., Shelton, S. E., Davidson, R. J., & Kalin, N. H. (2013). Neural mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in the presentation of anxious temperament. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110, 6145–6150. CrossRef Shackman, A. J., Fox, A. S., Oler, J. A., Shelton, S. E., Davidson, R. J., & Kalin, N. H. (2013). Neural mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in the presentation of anxious temperament. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110, 6145–6150. CrossRef
go back to reference Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929. CrossRef Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929. CrossRef
go back to reference Simpson, H. B. (2012). The RDOC Project: A new paradigm for investigating the pathophysiology of anxiety. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 251–252. CrossRef Simpson, H. B. (2012). The RDOC Project: A new paradigm for investigating the pathophysiology of anxiety. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 251–252. CrossRef
go back to reference South, M., & Rodgers, J. (2017). Sensory, emotional and cognitive contributions to anxiety in autism spectrum disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 24, 11–20. South, M., & Rodgers, J. (2017). Sensory, emotional and cognitive contributions to anxiety in autism spectrum disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 24, 11–20.
go back to reference Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Survey ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Survey ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Sterling, L., Renno, P., Storch, E. A., Ehrenreich-May, J., Lewin, A. B., Arnold, E., Lin, E., & Wood, J. (2015). Validity of the Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 19, 113–117. CrossRef Sterling, L., Renno, P., Storch, E. A., Ehrenreich-May, J., Lewin, A. B., Arnold, E., Lin, E., & Wood, J. (2015). Validity of the Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 19, 113–117. CrossRef
go back to reference Sukhodolsky, D. G., Scahill, L., Gadow, K. D., Arnold, L. E., Aman, M. G., McDougle, C. J., McCracken, J. T., Tierney, E., White, W., Lecavalier, S. L., & Vitiello, B. (2008). Parent-rated anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: Frequency and association with core autism symptoms and cognitive functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(1), 117–128. CrossRef Sukhodolsky, D. G., Scahill, L., Gadow, K. D., Arnold, L. E., Aman, M. G., McDougle, C. J., McCracken, J. T., Tierney, E., White, W., Lecavalier, S. L., & Vitiello, B. (2008). Parent-rated anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: Frequency and association with core autism symptoms and cognitive functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(1), 117–128. CrossRef
go back to reference Suzuki, R., & Shimodaira, H. (2006). Pvclust: An R package for assessing the uncertainty in hierarchical clustering. Bioinformatics, 22, 1540–1542. CrossRef Suzuki, R., & Shimodaira, H. (2006). Pvclust: An R package for assessing the uncertainty in hierarchical clustering. Bioinformatics, 22, 1540–1542. CrossRef
go back to reference Ung, D., Wood, J. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Arnold, E. B., Fuji, C., Renno, P., Murphy, T. K., Lewin, A. B., Mutch, P. J., & Storch, E. A. (2013). Clinical characteristics of high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety. Neuropsychiatry ( London), 3(2). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2217/​npy.​13.​9 Ung, D., Wood, J. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Arnold, E. B., Fuji, C., Renno, P., Murphy, T. K., Lewin, A. B., Mutch, P. J., & Storch, E. A. (2013). Clinical characteristics of high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety. Neuropsychiatry ( London), 3(2). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2217/​npy.​13.​9
go back to reference Van Steensel, F. J., Bögels, S. M., & Perrin, S. (2011). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 302–317. CrossRef Van Steensel, F. J., Bögels, S. M., & Perrin, S. (2011). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 302–317. CrossRef
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., & McPartland, J. C. (2016). Moving beyond a categorical diagnosis of autism. Lancet Neurology, 15, 237–238. CrossRef Volkmar, F. R., & McPartland, J. C. (2016). Moving beyond a categorical diagnosis of autism. Lancet Neurology, 15, 237–238. CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Weisbrot, D. M., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15, 477–496. CrossRef Weisbrot, D. M., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15, 477–496. CrossRef
go back to reference White, S. W., Kreiser, N. L., Pugliese, C., & Scarpa, A. (2012). Social anxiety mediates the effect of autism spectrum disorder characteristics on hostility in young adults. Autism, 16(5), 453–464. CrossRef White, S. W., Kreiser, N. L., Pugliese, C., & Scarpa, A. (2012). Social anxiety mediates the effect of autism spectrum disorder characteristics on hostility in young adults. Autism, 16(5), 453–464. CrossRef
go back to reference White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014). Social-cognitive, physiological, and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36. CrossRef White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014). Social-cognitive, physiological, and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36. CrossRef
go back to reference White, S. W., Oswald, D., Ollendick, T., & Scahill, L. (2009). Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(3), 216–229. CrossRef White, S. W., Oswald, D., Ollendick, T., & Scahill, L. (2009). Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(3), 216–229. CrossRef
go back to reference Wood, J. J., & Gadow, K. D. (2010). Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17(4), 281–292. Wood, J. J., & Gadow, K. D. (2010). Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17(4), 281–292.
Metagegevens
Titel
Network Analysis of Anxiety in the Autism Realm
Auteurs
Farhad Montazeri
Annelies de Bildt
Vera Dekker
George M. Anderson
Publicatiedatum
30-01-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 6/2019
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3474-4

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2019

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2019 Naar de uitgave