Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
To better understand the factors associated with the maintenance of social anxiety symptoms in youth. Social anxiety disorder is highly prevalent, and it is associated with persistent and recurrent major depressive disorders that are more chronic and linked with worse social functioning. Negative self-statements have been found to be a critical factor in the development and maintenance of mood dysregulation in youth. Working memory has been one variable that has shown to influence and/or be influenced by maladaptive cognitions.
The goal of the current study was to delineate the role negative self-statements and working memory play in the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in youth (N = 159; agerange = 7–16 years; Mage = 10.97 ± 2.38 years). It was hypothesized that negative self-statements would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology, and this relationship would be moderated by working memory.
provided support for our hypothesis; negative-self statements have an indirect effect the relationship between socially anxious and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of service-seeking youth. Furthermore, the relationship between negative self-statements and depressive symptomatology, but not social anxiety and negative self-statements, was moderated by working memory.
The indirect effect negative self-statements have on the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth, where negative self-statements and depressive symptoms were moderated by youths’ working memory have important assessment and treatment implications of mood disorders in youth.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Alden, L. E., Bieling, P. J., & Wallace, S. T. (1994). Perfectionism in an interpersonal context: A self-regulation analysis of dysphoria and social anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 297–316. CrossRef
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol 8, pp. 47–89). New York: Academic Press.
Baldwin, J. S., & Dadds, M. R. (2007). Reliability and validity of parent and child versions of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children in community samples. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(2), 252–260. CrossRef
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.
Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.
Brewin, C. R., & Smart, L. (2005). Working memory capacity and suppression of intrusive thoughts. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36(1), 61–68. CrossRef
Brown, T. A., Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). Structural relationship among dimensions of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 179–192. CrossRef
Bomyea, J., & Amir, N. (2011). The effect of an executive functioning training program on working memory capacity and negative self-statements. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 529–535. CrossRef
Christopher, G., & MacDonald, J. (2005). The impact of clinical depression on working memory. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10(5), 379–399. CrossRef
Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of abnormal psychology, 100(3), 316–336. CrossRef
Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–94). New York: The Guilford Press.
Dalrymple, K. L., & Zimmerman, M. (2011). Age of onset of social anxiety disorder in depressed outpatients. Journal of Anxiety Sisorders, 25(1), 131–137. CrossRef
Eysenck, M. W., & Calvo, M. G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: the processing efficiency theory. Cognition & Emotion, 6(6), 409–434. CrossRef
Gohier, B., Ferracci, L., Surguladze, S. A., Lawrence, E., El Hage, W., Kefi, M. Z., & Le Gall, D. (2009). Cognitive inhibition and working memory in unipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 116(1), 100–105. CrossRef
Hartman, L. M. (1986). Social anxiety, problem drinking, and self-awareness. In L. M. Hartman & K. R. Blankstein (Eds.), Perception of self in emotional disorder and psychotherapy (pp. 265–282). New York: Plenum Press.
Harvey, P. O., Le Bastard, G., Pochon, J. B., Levy, R., Allilaire, J. F., Dubois, B. E., & Fossati, P. (2004). Executive functions and updating of the contents of working memory in unipolar depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38(6), 567–576. CrossRef
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hogendoorn, S. M., Wolters, L. H., Vervoort, L., Prins, P. J., Boer, F., Kooij, E., & De Haan, E. (2010). Measuring negative and positive thoughts in children: an adaptation of the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS). Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(5), 467–478. CrossRef
Jha, A. P., Stanley, E. A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., & Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10(1), 54–64. CrossRef
Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of abnormal psychology, 117(1), 182–192. CrossRef
Juster, H. R., & Heimberg, R. G. (1995). Social phobia. Longitudinal course and long term outcome of cognitive-behavioral treatment. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 18, 821–842.
Kashdan, T. B., & Herbert, J. D. (2001). Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Current status and future directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(1), 37–61. CrossRef
Kendall, P. C., & MacDonald, J. P. (1993). Cognition in the psychopathology of youth and implications for treatment. In K. S. Dobson & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), Psychopathology and cognition (pp. 387–427). California: Academic Press.
Koenigs, M., Barbey, A. K., Postle, B. R., & Grafman, J. (2009). Superior parietal cortex is critical for the manipulation of information in working memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(47), 14980–14986. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health System.
March, J. S. (1998). Multi-dimensional anxiety scale for children. North Tonawanda: Multi Health Systems.
March, J. S., Parker, J. D., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, C. K. (1997). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 554–565. CrossRef
Micco, J. A., & Ehrenreich, J. T. (2009). Validity and specificity of the children’s automatic thoughts scale in clinically anxious and non-clinical children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33(5), 532–536. CrossRef
Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 377–412. CrossRef
Moran, T. P. (2016). Anxiety and working memory capacity: a meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 142(8), 831–864. CrossRef
Musa, C. Z., & Lépine, J. P. (2000). Cognitive aspects of social phobia: a review of theories and experimental research. European Psychiatry, 15, 59–66. CrossRef
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. CrossRef
Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in academic performance: an exploration of the mediating factors of worry and working memory. School Psychology International, 33(4), 433–449. CrossRef
Rapee, R. M., Wignall, A., Hudson, J. L., & Schniering, C. A. (2000). Treating anxious children and adolescents: An evidence-based approach. Oakland, CA, US: New Harbinger Publications.
Ronan, K. R., Kendall, P. C., & Rowe, M. (1994). Negative affectivity in children: development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(6), 509–528. CrossRef
Rose, E. J., & Ebmeier, K. P. (2006). Pattern of impaired working memory during major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 90(2), 149–161. CrossRef
Rosen, V. M., & Engle, R. W. (1998). Working memory capacity and suppression. Journal of Memory and Language, 39(3), 418–436. CrossRef
Rynn, M. A., Barber, J. P., Khalid-Khan, S., Siqueland, L., Dembiski, M., McCarthy, K. S., & Gallop, R. (2006). The psychometric properties of the MASC in a pediatric psychiatric sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20(2), 139–157. CrossRef
Saylor, C. F., Finch, A. J., Spirito, A., & Bennett, B. (1984). The children’s depression inventory: a systematic evaluation of psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(6), 955–967. CrossRef
Schmeichel, B. J., & Demaree, H. A. (2010). Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback. Emotion, 10(5), 739–744. CrossRef
Schmeichel, B. J., Volokhov, R. N., & Demaree, H. A. (2008). Working memory capacity and the self-regulation of emotional expression and experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 1526–1540. CrossRef
Schneier, F. R., Johnson, J., Hornig, C. D., Liebowitz, M. R., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). Social phobia: comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(4), 282–288. CrossRef
Schniering, C. A., & Lyneham, H. J. (2007). The children’s automatic thoughts scale in a clinical sample: psychometric properties and clinical utility. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1931–1940. CrossRef
Schniering, C. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2002). Development and validation of a measure of children’s automatic thoughts: the children’s automatic thoughts scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 1091–1109. CrossRef
Schwartz, R. M., & Garamoni, G. L. (1989). Cognitive balance and psychopathology—evaluation of an information-processing model of positive and negative states of mind. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 271–294. CrossRef
Starcevic, V. (1995). Pathological worry in major depression: a preliminary report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(1), 55–56. CrossRef
Stein, M. B., Fuetsch, M., Müller, N., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2001). Social anxiety disorder and the risk of depression: a prospective community study of adolescents and young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(3), 251–256. CrossRef
Stein, M. B., Chavira, D. A., & Jang, K. L. (2001). Bringing up bashful baby: developmental pathways to social phobia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(4), 661–675. CrossRef
Tabachnick, L. B. G., & Fidell, S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th Edn.) Pearson, Boston.
Treadwell, K. R. H., & Kendall, P. C. (1996). Self-talk in youth with anxiety disorders: States of mind, content specificity, and treatment outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 941–950. CrossRef
Verwoerd, J., de Jong, P. J., & Wessel, I. (2008). Low attentional control and the development of intrusive memories following a laboratory stressor. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30(4), 291–297. CrossRef
Wallace, S. T., & Alden, L. E. (1997). Social phobia and positive social events: the price of success. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 416–424. CrossRef
Watson, D. (2009). Differentiating the mood and anxiety disorders: A quadripartite model. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 221–247. CrossRef
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), 346–353. CrossRef
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-WISC-IV. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Wenzlaff, R. M. (2002). Intrusive thoughts in depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(2), 145–159. CrossRef
- Negative Self-Statements Mediate Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptomatology in Youth: The Role of Working Memory
Peter J. Castagna
Thompson E. Davis III
- Springer US
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843