Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

03-10-2017 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Multimodal Sustained Attention Superiority in Concentrative Meditators Compared to Nonmeditators

Auteurs: Paige Badart, John McDowall, Steven L. Prime

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Attention regulation plays a central role in both Buddhist and secular forms of meditation. One of the most common meditative practices is a concentrative meditation technique aimed at developing sustained focused attention. Despite a growing body of research showing meditation practice enhances various attention abilities, evidence of sustained attention benefits from meditation has been inconsistent. Also, most studies that tested meditators’ sustained attention abilities used visual tasks. The extent to which the putative superior sustained attention in meditators might generalize to other stimulus modalities (e.g., auditory), and thus, whether meditation is associated with general attentional enhancement, is still unclear. Here, we compared regular meditators’ sustained attention performance to nonmeditator controls using the response switching task (RST) in unimodal visual and auditory conditions (Exp 1) as well as bimodal visual-auditory conditions (Exp 2). The RST involves continuous responding to frequent stimuli and switching button-responses with an infrequent target stimulus. Errors in responding to the target signify difficulties in sustaining attention. Our main results showed that meditators made significantly fewer errors, indicating fewer attentional lapses in sustained attention, than nonmeditators across all unimodal and bimodal RST conditions, a finding that has not been reported before in previous studies. These findings provide further evidence of a positive association between meditators and enhanced sustained attention and new evidence that suggest that meditation is associated with general, modality nonspecific, enhancement of attentional control.
Literatuur
go back to reference Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14, 449–463.CrossRef Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14, 449–463.CrossRef
go back to reference Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 104, 11483–11488.CrossRef Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 104, 11483–11488.CrossRef
go back to reference Brewer, J. A., Worhunsky, P. D., Gray, J. R., Tang, Y.-Y., Weber, J., & Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 108, 20254–20259.CrossRef Brewer, J. A., Worhunsky, P. D., Gray, J. R., Tang, Y.-Y., Weber, J., & Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 108, 20254–20259.CrossRef
go back to reference Carter, O. L., Presti, D. E., Callistemon, C., Ungerer, Y., Liu, G. B., & Pettigrew, J. D. (2005). Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology, 15, R412–R413.CrossRefPubMed Carter, O. L., Presti, D. E., Callistemon, C., Ungerer, Y., Liu, G. B., & Pettigrew, J. D. (2005). Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology, 15, R412–R413.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.CrossRef Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.CrossRef
go back to reference Chan, R. C. K. (2001). A further study on the sustained attention response to task (SART): the effect of age, gender and education. Brain Injury, 15, 819–829.CrossRefPubMed Chan, R. C. K. (2001). A further study on the sustained attention response to task (SART): the effect of age, gender and education. Brain Injury, 15, 819–829.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cheyne, J. A., Carriere, J. S., & Smilek, D. (2009). Absent minds and absent agents: attention-lapse induced alienation of agency. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 481–493.CrossRefPubMed Cheyne, J. A., Carriere, J. S., & Smilek, D. (2009). Absent minds and absent agents: attention-lapse induced alienation of agency. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 481–493.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cheyne, J. A., Carriere, J. S. A., Solman, G. J. F., & Smilek, D. (2011). Challenge and error: critical events and attention-related errors. Cognition, 11, 437–446. Cheyne, J. A., Carriere, J. S. A., Solman, G. J. F., & Smilek, D. (2011). Challenge and error: critical events and attention-related errors. Cognition, 11, 437–446.
go back to reference Cheyne, D. O., Ferrari, P., & Cheyne, J. A. (2012). Intended actions and unexpected outcomes: automatic and controlled processing in a rapid motor task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cheyne, D. O., Ferrari, P., & Cheyne, J. A. (2012). Intended actions and unexpected outcomes: automatic and controlled processing in a rapid motor task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cusen, B., Duggan, G. B., Thorne, K., & Burch, V. (2010). Evaluation of the Breathworks Mindfulness-Based Pain Management Programme: effects on well-being and multiple measures of mindfulness. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 17, 63–78. Cusen, B., Duggan, G. B., Thorne, K., & Burch, V. (2010). Evaluation of the Breathworks Mindfulness-Based Pain Management Programme: effects on well-being and multiple measures of mindfulness. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 17, 63–78.
go back to reference Goleman, D. J. (1996). The meditative mind: varieties of meditative experience. New York: Pengion Putnam. Goleman, D. J. (1996). The meditative mind: varieties of meditative experience. New York: Pengion Putnam.
go back to reference Grant, J. A., Courtemanche, J., Duerden, E. G., Duncan, G. H., & Rainville, P. (2010). Cortical thickness and pain sensitivity in Zen meditators. Emotion, 10, 43–53.CrossRefPubMed Grant, J. A., Courtemanche, J., Duerden, E. G., Duncan, G. H., & Rainville, P. (2010). Cortical thickness and pain sensitivity in Zen meditators. Emotion, 10, 43–53.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hasenkamp, W., & Barsalou, L. W. (2012). Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Hasenkamp, W., & Barsalou, L. W. (2012). Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hauswald, A., Ubelacker, T., Leske, S., & Weisz, N. (2015). What it means to be Zen: marked modulations of local and interareal synchronization during open monitoring meditation. NeuroImage, 108, 265–273.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Hauswald, A., Ubelacker, T., Leske, S., & Weisz, N. (2015). What it means to be Zen: marked modulations of local and interareal synchronization during open monitoring meditation. NeuroImage, 108, 265–273.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hodgins, H. S., & Adair, K. C. (2010). Attentional processes and meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 872–878.CrossRefPubMed Hodgins, H. S., & Adair, K. C. (2010). Attentional processes and meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 872–878.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hölzel, B. K., Ott, U., Hempel, H., Hackl, A., Wolf, K., Stark, R., & Vaitl, D. (2007). Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neuroscience Letters, 421, 16–21.CrossRefPubMed Hölzel, B. K., Ott, U., Hempel, H., Hackl, A., Wolf, K., Stark, R., & Vaitl, D. (2007). Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neuroscience Letters, 421, 16–21.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.CrossRef Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.CrossRef
go back to reference Jo, H.-G., Schmidt, S., Inacker, E., Markowaik, M., & Hinterberger, T. (2016). Meditation and attention: a controlled study on long-term meditators in behavioral performance and event-related potentials of attentional control. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 99, 33–39.CrossRefPubMed Jo, H.-G., Schmidt, S., Inacker, E., Markowaik, M., & Hinterberger, T. (2016). Meditation and attention: a controlled study on long-term meditators in behavioral performance and event-related potentials of attentional control. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 99, 33–39.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Josefsson, T., & Broberg, A. (2011). Meditators and non-meditators on sustained and executive attentional performance. Mental Health, Religion, & Culture, 14, 291–309.CrossRef Josefsson, T., & Broberg, A. (2011). Meditators and non-meditators on sustained and executive attentional performance. Mental Health, Religion, & Culture, 14, 291–309.CrossRef
go back to reference Kozasa, E. H., Sato, J. R., Lacerda, S. S., Barreiros, M. A. M., Radvany, J., Russell, T. A., Sanches, L. G., Mello, L. E. A. M., & Amaro, E. (2012). Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. NeuroImage, 59, 745–749.CrossRefPubMed Kozasa, E. H., Sato, J. R., Lacerda, S. S., Barreiros, M. A. M., Radvany, J., Russell, T. A., Sanches, L. G., Mello, L. E. A. M., & Amaro, E. (2012). Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. NeuroImage, 59, 745–749.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Krumbholz, K., Nobis, E. A., Weatheritt, R. J., & Fink, G. R. (2008). Executive control of spatial attention shifts in the auditory compared to the visual modality. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 1457–1469.CrossRef Krumbholz, K., Nobis, E. A., Weatheritt, R. J., & Fink, G. R. (2008). Executive control of spatial attention shifts in the auditory compared to the visual modality. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 1457–1469.CrossRef
go back to reference Lippelt, D. P., Hommel, B., & Colzato, L. S. (2014). Focused attention, open monitoring, and loving kindness meditation: effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity—a review. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1083.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lippelt, D. P., Hommel, B., & Colzato, L. S. (2014). Focused attention, open monitoring, and loving kindness meditation: effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity—a review. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1083.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Rawlings, N. B., Ricard, M., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101, 16369–16373.CrossRef Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Rawlings, N. B., Ricard, M., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101, 16369–16373.CrossRef
go back to reference Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12, 163–169.CrossRef Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12, 163–169.CrossRef
go back to reference Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Rawlings, N. B., Francis, A. D., Greischar, L. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2009). Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 13418–13427.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Rawlings, N. B., Francis, A. D., Greischar, L. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2009). Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 13418–13427.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lykins, E. L. B., Baer, R. A., & Gottlob, L. R. (2012). Performance-based tests of attention and memory in long-term mindfulness meditators and demographically matched nonmeditators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 103–114.CrossRef Lykins, E. L. B., Baer, R. A., & Gottlob, L. R. (2012). Performance-based tests of attention and memory in long-term mindfulness meditators and demographically matched nonmeditators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 103–114.CrossRef
go back to reference MacLean, K. A., Ferrer, E., Aichele, S. R., et al. (2010). Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention. Psychological Science, 21, 829–839.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral MacLean, K. A., Ferrer, E., Aichele, S. R., et al. (2010). Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention. Psychological Science, 21, 829–839.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Manna, A., Raffone, A., Perrcuci, M. G., Nardo, D., Ferretti, A., Tartaro, A., Londei, A., Del Gratta, C., Belardinelli, M. O., & Romani, G. L. (2010). Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation. Brain Research Bulletin, 82, 46–56.CrossRefPubMed Manna, A., Raffone, A., Perrcuci, M. G., Nardo, D., Ferretti, A., Tartaro, A., Londei, A., Del Gratta, C., Belardinelli, M. O., & Romani, G. L. (2010). Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation. Brain Research Bulletin, 82, 46–56.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McCormick, P. A., & Francis, L. (2005). Speed-accuracy tradeoff operator characteristics of endogenous and exogenous covert orienting of attention. The Scientific World Journal, 5, 128–146.CrossRefPubMed McCormick, P. A., & Francis, L. (2005). Speed-accuracy tradeoff operator characteristics of endogenous and exogenous covert orienting of attention. The Scientific World Journal, 5, 128–146.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Moore, A., Gruber, T., Derose, J., & Malinowski, P. (2012). Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Moore, A., Gruber, T., Derose, J., & Malinowski, P. (2012). Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Morrison, A. B., Goolsarran, M., Rogers, S. L., & Jha, A. P. (2014). Taming a wandering attention: short-form mindfulness training in student cohorts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 897.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Morrison, A. B., Goolsarran, M., Rogers, S. L., & Jha, A. P. (2014). Taming a wandering attention: short-form mindfulness training in student cohorts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 897.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Mrazek, M. D., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Mindfulness and mind-wandering: finding convergence through opposing constructs. Emotion, 12, 442–448.CrossRefPubMed Mrazek, M. D., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Mindfulness and mind-wandering: finding convergence through opposing constructs. Emotion, 12, 442–448.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Raffone, A., & Srinivasan, N. (2010). The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness. Cognitive Processing, 11, 1–7.CrossRefPubMed Raffone, A., & Srinivasan, N. (2010). The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness. Cognitive Processing, 11, 1–7.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Robertson, I. H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B. T., & Yiend, J. (1997). “Oops!”: performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35, 747–758.CrossRefPubMed Robertson, I. H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B. T., & Yiend, J. (1997). “Oops!”: performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 35, 747–758.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ruff, R. M., & Allen, C. C. (1996). Ruff 2 and 7 selective attention test professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.. Ruff, R. M., & Allen, C. C. (1996). Ruff 2 and 7 selective attention test professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc..
go back to reference Sarter, M., Givens, B., & Bruno, J. P. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Research Reviews, 35, 146–160.CrossRefPubMed Sarter, M., Givens, B., & Bruno, J. P. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Research Reviews, 35, 146–160.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Seli, P., Cheyne, J. A., Barton, K. R., & Smilek, D. (2012a). Consistency of sustained attention across modalities: comparing visual and auditory versions of the SART. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 44–50.CrossRefPubMed Seli, P., Cheyne, J. A., Barton, K. R., & Smilek, D. (2012a). Consistency of sustained attention across modalities: comparing visual and auditory versions of the SART. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 44–50.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Seli, P., Cheyne, J. A., & Smilek, D. (2012b). Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs. Consiciousness and Cognition, 21, 277–291.CrossRef Seli, P., Cheyne, J. A., & Smilek, D. (2012b). Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs. Consiciousness and Cognition, 21, 277–291.CrossRef
go back to reference Short, E. B., Kose, S., Mu, Q., Borchardt, J., Newberg, A., George, M. S., & Kozel, F. A. (2010). Regional brain activation during meditation shows time and practice effects: an exploratory fMRI study. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7, 121–127.CrossRef Short, E. B., Kose, S., Mu, Q., Borchardt, J., Newberg, A., George, M. S., & Kozel, F. A. (2010). Regional brain activation during meditation shows time and practice effects: an exploratory fMRI study. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7, 121–127.CrossRef
go back to reference Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5, e138.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5, e138.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M. K., Fan, M., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 17152–17156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M. K., Fan, M., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 17152–17156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Fan, Y., Feng, H., Wang, J., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Hu, B., Lin, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, L., & Fan, M. (2009). Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8865–8870.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Fan, Y., Feng, H., Wang, J., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Hu, B., Lin, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, L., & Fan, M. (2009). Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8865–8870.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Tang, Y.-Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 107, 15649–15652.CrossRef Tang, Y.-Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 107, 15649–15652.CrossRef
go back to reference Tang, Y.-Y., Lu, Q., Fan, M., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2012). Mechanisms of white matter changes induced by meditation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 109, 10570–10574.CrossRef Tang, Y.-Y., Lu, Q., Fan, M., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2012). Mechanisms of white matter changes induced by meditation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 109, 10570–10574.CrossRef
go back to reference Tang, Y.-Y., Hozel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 16, 213–225.CrossRefPubMed Tang, Y.-Y., Hozel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 16, 213–225.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. G. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 2, 59–70.CrossRef Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. G. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 2, 59–70.CrossRef
go back to reference van Leeuwen, S., Muller, N. G., & Melloni, L. (2009). Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 593–599.CrossRefPubMed van Leeuwen, S., Muller, N. G., & Melloni, L. (2009). Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 593–599.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference van Leeuwen, S., Singer, W., & Melloni, L. (2012). Meditation increases the depth of information processing and improves the allocation of attention in space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 133.PubMedPubMedCentral van Leeuwen, S., Singer, W., & Melloni, L. (2012). Meditation increases the depth of information processing and improves the allocation of attention in space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 133.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Wadlinger, H. A., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2011). Fixing our focus: training attention to regulate emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 75–102.CrossRefPubMed Wadlinger, H. A., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2011). Fixing our focus: training attention to regulate emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 75–102.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wallace, B. A. (1999). The Buddhist tradition of Samatha: methods for refining and examining consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 175–187. Wallace, B. A. (1999). The Buddhist tradition of Samatha: methods for refining and examining consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 175–187.
go back to reference Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and western psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 227–239.CrossRefPubMed Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and western psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 227–239.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wickelgren, W. A. (1977). Speed-accuracy tradeoff and information processing dynamics. Acta Psychologica, 41, 67–85.CrossRef Wickelgren, W. A. (1977). Speed-accuracy tradeoff and information processing dynamics. Acta Psychologica, 41, 67–85.CrossRef
go back to reference Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 597–605.CrossRefPubMed Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 597–605.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Multimodal Sustained Attention Superiority in Concentrative Meditators Compared to Nonmeditators
Auteurs
Paige Badart
John McDowall
Steven L. Prime
Publicatiedatum
03-10-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2018
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0822-y

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2018

Mindfulness 3/2018 Naar de uitgave

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

No Separation