The present study examined the links between mother and child synchrony, shared affect, and young children’s aggressive behavior and social skills. The sample was 59 young children (3–6 years; 29 aggressive and 30 non-aggressive) and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing children’s aggressive behavior and social skills. Interactional synchrony and shared affect were assessed during a mother–child free play task and structured task. The results revealed non-aggressive dyads exhibited more interactional synchrony, shared positive affect, and less shared negative affect, than aggressive dyads. Level of interactional synchrony, shared positive affect, and child aggression predicted children’s social skills. The results also provided some support that the quality of the interactions differed by task type. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for intervention.