Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 10/2015

11-06-2015 | Original Paper

Model Invariance Across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

Auteurs: Neill Broderick, Jordan L. Wade, J. Patrick Meyer, Michael Hull, Ronald E. Reeve

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 10/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates psychometric properties superior to other self-report measures. To examine evidence regarding validity of the BAPQ, the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test the assumption of model invariance across genders. Results of the current study upheld model invariance at each level of parameter constraint; however, model fit indices suggested limited goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the sample. Exploratory analyses investigated alternate factor structure models but ultimately supported the proposed three-factor structure model.
Literatuur
go back to reference Amemiya, Y., & Anderson, T. W. (1990). Asymptotic Chi square tests for a large class of factor analysis models. The Annals of Statistics, 18(3), 1453–1463. CrossRef Amemiya, Y., & Anderson, T. W. (1990). Asymptotic Chi square tests for a large class of factor analysis models. The Annals of Statistics, 18(3), 1453–1463. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fift ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fift ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Anderson, T. W., & Amemiya, Y. (1988). The asymptotic normal distribution of estimators in factor analysis under general conditions. The Annals of Statistics, 16(2), 759–771. CrossRef Anderson, T. W., & Amemiya, Y. (1988). The asymptotic normal distribution of estimators in factor analysis under general conditions. The Annals of Statistics, 16(2), 759–771. CrossRef
go back to reference Arbuckle, J. L. (2011). IBM SPSS Amos 20.0 user’s guide. Armonk: IBM. Arbuckle, J. L. (2011). IBM SPSS Amos 20.0 user’s guide. Armonk: IBM.
go back to reference Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25(1), 5–17. CrossRef Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25(1), 5–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism- spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathemeticians. Autism, 2, 296–301. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism- spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathemeticians. Autism, 2, 296–301. CrossRef
go back to reference Bernier, R., Gerdts, J., Munson, J., Dawson, G., & Estes, A. (2012). Evidence for broader autism phenotype characteristics. Autism Research, 5, 13–20. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Bernier, R., Gerdts, J., Munson, J., Dawson, G., & Estes, A. (2012). Evidence for broader autism phenotype characteristics. Autism Research, 5, 13–20. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Maley, Al, Wong, D., Hill, W., & Hallmayer, J. (2004). Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: A study using the autism-spectrum quotient. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1431–1436. CrossRefPubMed Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Maley, Al, Wong, D., Hill, W., & Hallmayer, J. (2004). Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: A study using the autism-spectrum quotient. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1431–1436. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(5), 877–900. CrossRefPubMed Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(5), 877–900. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthen, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105(3), 456–466. CrossRef Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthen, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105(3), 456–466. CrossRef
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Surveillance Summaries, 61(SS03), 1–19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Surveillance Summaries, 61(SS03), 1–19.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). CDC estimates 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (Press release). Retrieved from www.​cdc/​mmwr Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). CDC estimates 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (Press release). Retrieved from www.​cdc/​mmwr
go back to reference Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 235–255. CrossRef Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 235–255. CrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J. (2002). The social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Constantino, J. (2002). The social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief measure of autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660. CrossRef Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief measure of autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660. CrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J., Gruber, C. P., Davis, S., Hayes, S., Passamante, N., Przybeck, T., et al. (2004). The factor structure of autistic traits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 719–726. CrossRefPubMed Constantino, J., Gruber, C. P., Davis, S., Hayes, S., Passamante, N., Przybeck, T., et al. (2004). The factor structure of autistic traits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 719–726. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Constantino, J., & Todd, R. D. (2005). Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660. CrossRefPubMed Constantino, J., & Todd, R. D. (2005). Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29. CrossRef Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29. CrossRef
go back to reference Davidson, J., Goin-Kochel, R. P., Green-Snyder, L. A., Hundley, R. J., Warren, Z., & Peters, S. U. (2012). Expression of the broad autism phenotype in simplex autism families from the simons simplex collection. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-012-1492-1. Davidson, J., Goin-Kochel, R. P., Green-Snyder, L. A., Hundley, R. J., Warren, Z., & Peters, S. U. (2012). Expression of the broad autism phenotype in simplex autism families from the simons simplex collection. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10802-012-1492-1.
go back to reference Dawson, G., Estes, G., Munson, J., Schellenberg, G., Bernier, R., & Abbott, R. (2007). Quantitative assessment of autism symptom-related traits in probands and parents: Broader phenotype autism symptom scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 523–536. CrossRefPubMed Dawson, G., Estes, G., Munson, J., Schellenberg, G., Bernier, R., & Abbott, R. (2007). Quantitative assessment of autism symptom-related traits in probands and parents: Broader phenotype autism symptom scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 523–536. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fischbach, G., & Lord, C. (2010). The simons simplex collection: A resource for identification of autism genetic risk factors. Neuron, 68(2), 192–195. CrossRefPubMed Fischbach, G., & Lord, C. (2010). The simons simplex collection: A resource for identification of autism genetic risk factors. Neuron, 68(2), 192–195. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18(4), 297–321. CrossRefPubMed Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18(4), 297–321. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Kubu, C. S., Sinclair, L., & Rezai, A. (2008). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the autism diagnostic interview—Revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 474–480. CrossRefPubMed Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Kubu, C. S., Sinclair, L., & Rezai, A. (2008). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the autism diagnostic interview—Revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 474–480. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hallmayer, J., Clevelan, S., Torres, A., Phillips, J., Cohen, B., Torigoe, T., et al. (2011). Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1095–1102. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Hallmayer, J., Clevelan, S., Torres, A., Phillips, J., Cohen, B., Torigoe, T., et al. (2011). Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1095–1102. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.​1080/​1070551990954011​8. CrossRef Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.​1080/​1070551990954011​8. CrossRef
go back to reference Hurley, E., Losh, M., Parlier, M., Reznick, J. S., & Piven, J. (2007). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1679–1690. CrossRefPubMed Hurley, E., Losh, M., Parlier, M., Reznick, J. S., & Piven, J. (2007). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1679–1690. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ingersoll, B., Hopwood, C. J., Wainer, A., & Donellan, M. B. (2011). A comparison of three self- report measures of the broader autism phenotype in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1646–1657. CrossRefPubMed Ingersoll, B., Hopwood, C. J., Wainer, A., & Donellan, M. B. (2011). A comparison of three self- report measures of the broader autism phenotype in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1646–1657. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klin, A., Saulnier, C., Tsatsanis, K., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005). Clinical evaluation in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Psychological assessment within a transdisciplinary framework. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, & A. Klin (Eds.), The handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, volume 2: Assessment, interventions, and policy (3rd ed., pp. 772–798). New York, NY: Wiley. Klin, A., Saulnier, C., Tsatsanis, K., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005). Clinical evaluation in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Psychological assessment within a transdisciplinary framework. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, & A. Klin (Eds.), The handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, volume 2: Assessment, interventions, and policy (3rd ed., pp. 772–798). New York, NY: Wiley.
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2007). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. WPS Edition Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2007). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. WPS Edition Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Losh, M., Childress, D., Lam, K., & Piven, J. (2008a). Defining key features of the broad autism phenotype: A comparison of multiple- and single-incidence families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 147B, 424–433. CrossRef Losh, M., Childress, D., Lam, K., & Piven, J. (2008a). Defining key features of the broad autism phenotype: A comparison of multiple- and single-incidence families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 147B, 424–433. CrossRef
go back to reference Losh, M., Sullivan, P., Trembath, D., & Piven, J. (2008b). Current developments in the genetics of autism: From phenome to genome. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 67(9), 829–837. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Losh, M., Sullivan, P., Trembath, D., & Piven, J. (2008b). Current developments in the genetics of autism: From phenome to genome. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 67(9), 829–837. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Murphy, M., Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter, M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1411–1424. CrossRefPubMed Murphy, M., Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter, M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1411–1424. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Norris, M., Lecavalier, L., & Edwards, M. C. (2012). The structure of autism symptoms as measured by the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1075–1086. CrossRefPubMed Norris, M., Lecavalier, L., & Edwards, M. C. (2012). The structure of autism symptoms as measured by the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1075–1086. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Young, G. A., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128, e488–e495. PubMedCentralPubMed Ozonoff, S., Young, G. A., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128, e488–e495. PubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Piven, J. (2001). The broad autism phenotype: A complementary strategy for molecular genetic studies of autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 105(1), 34–35. CrossRef Piven, J. (2001). The broad autism phenotype: A complementary strategy for molecular genetic studies of autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 105(1), 34–35. CrossRef
go back to reference Piven, J., & Palmer, P. (1999). Psychiatric disorder and the broad autism phenotype: Evidence from a family study of multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 557–564. PubMed Piven, J., & Palmer, P. (1999). Psychiatric disorder and the broad autism phenotype: Evidence from a family study of multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 557–564. PubMed
go back to reference Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997a). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(2), 185–190. CrossRefPubMed Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997a). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(2), 185–190. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D., & Childress, D. (1997b). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 74, 398–411. CrossRef Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D., & Childress, D. (1997b). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 74, 398–411. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenberg, R. E., Law, J. K., Yenokyan, G., McGready, J., Kaufman, W. E., & Law, P. A. (2009). Characteristics and concordance of autism spectrum disorders among 277 twin pairs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicince, 163(10), 907–914. CrossRef Rosenberg, R. E., Law, J. K., Yenokyan, G., McGready, J., Kaufman, W. E., & Law, P. A. (2009). Characteristics and concordance of autism spectrum disorders among 277 twin pairs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicince, 163(10), 907–914. CrossRef
go back to reference Ruser, T. F., Arin, D., Dowd, M., Putnam, S., Winklosky, B., Rosen-Sheidley, B., et al. (2007). Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1323–1336. CrossRefPubMed Ruser, T. F., Arin, D., Dowd, M., Putnam, S., Winklosky, B., Rosen-Sheidley, B., et al. (2007). Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1323–1336. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2008). Autism diagnostic interview— Revised. WPS Edition Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2008). Autism diagnostic interviewRevised. WPS Edition Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Seidman, I., Yirmiya, N., Milshtein, S., Ebstein, R. P., & Levi, S. (2012). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire: Mothers versus fathers of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 837–846. CrossRefPubMed Seidman, I., Yirmiya, N., Milshtein, S., Ebstein, R. P., & Levi, S. (2012). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire: Mothers versus fathers of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 837–846. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Snow, A. V., Lecavalier, L., & Houts, C. (2009). The structure of the autism diagnostic interview-revised: Diagnostic and phenotypic implications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(6), 734–742. CrossRefPubMed Snow, A. V., Lecavalier, L., & Houts, C. (2009). The structure of the autism diagnostic interview-revised: Diagnostic and phenotypic implications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(6), 734–742. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference State, M. (Presenter). (2010). Genetics of autism. [Itunes U Video Seminar]. Retrieved from the Itunes U Yale Autism and Related Disorders Seminar Series. State, M. (Presenter). (2010). Genetics of autism. [Itunes U Video Seminar]. Retrieved from the Itunes U Yale Autism and Related Disorders Seminar Series.
go back to reference Sucksmith, E., Roth, I., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2011). Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: Re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century. Neuropsychology Review, 21, 360–389. CrossRefPubMed Sucksmith, E., Roth, I., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2011). Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: Re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century. Neuropsychology Review, 21, 360–389. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(4), 4–70. CrossRef Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(4), 4–70. CrossRef
go back to reference Yin, P., & Fan, X. (2003). Assessing the factor structure invariance of self-concept measure across ethnic and gender groups: Findings from a national sample. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(2), 296–318. CrossRef Yin, P., & Fan, X. (2003). Assessing the factor structure invariance of self-concept measure across ethnic and gender groups: Findings from a national sample. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(2), 296–318. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Model Invariance Across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire
Auteurs
Neill Broderick
Jordan L. Wade
J. Patrick Meyer
Michael Hull
Ronald E. Reeve
Publicatiedatum
11-06-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 10/2015
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2472-z