Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine 5/2016

17-08-2016

Minority stress and inflammatory mediators: covering moderates associations between perceived discrimination and salivary interleukin-6 in gay men

Auteurs: David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Uitgave 5/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Physical health disparities by sexual orientation are widespread yet under-investigated. Drawing upon theories of biological embedding of social adversity, we tested whether minority stress (in the form of perceived discrimination) is associated with salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory mediator. Furthermore, we examined whether covering, a strategy involving downplaying a stigmatized social identity, modified this association. A community sample (N = 99) of gay men (n = 78) and lesbian women (n = 21) completed self-report measures of minority stress and identity management and provided saliva samples which were assayed for IL-6. Among gay men, results from generalized linear models supported a hypothesized interaction between perceived discrimination and covering, such that perceived discrimination was predictive of higher levels of IL-6 for those who engaged in less covering but not for those who engaged in more covering. This interaction was robust to a number of potential covariates (alcohol, medication, body mass index, race and age). Results for lesbian women suggested a different pattern: the only statistically significant association detected was between greater perceived discrimination and lower levels of IL-6. Findings from the current study point to an important role for inflammatory processes in understanding and remediating health disparities based upon sexual orientation that stem from exposure to prejudice and discrimination.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 236–256. doi: 10.​1037/​a0018193 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 236–256. doi: 10.​1037/​a0018193 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5995–5999. doi: 10.​1073/​pnas.​1118355109 CrossRef Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5995–5999. doi: 10.​1073/​pnas.​1118355109 CrossRef
go back to reference Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B. R., & Fahey, J. L. (1996b). Accelerated course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 219–231. CrossRefPubMed Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B. R., & Fahey, J. L. (1996b). Accelerated course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 219–231. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Groer, M., Murphy, R., Bunnell, W., Salomon, K., Van Eepoel, J., Rankin, B., et al. (2010). Salivary measures of stress and immunity in police officers engaged in simulated critical incident scenarios. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, 595–602. doi: 10.​1097/​JOM.​0b013e3181e129da​ CrossRefPubMed Groer, M., Murphy, R., Bunnell, W., Salomon, K., Van Eepoel, J., Rankin, B., et al. (2010). Salivary measures of stress and immunity in police officers engaged in simulated critical incident scenarios. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, 595–602. doi: 10.​1097/​JOM.​0b013e3181e129da​ CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gustavsson, S., Fagerberg, B., Sallsten, G., & Andersson, E. M. (2014). Regression models for log-normal data: Comparing different methods for quantifying the association between abdominal adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 3521–3539. doi: 10.​3390/​ijerph110403521 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gustavsson, S., Fagerberg, B., Sallsten, G., & Andersson, E. M. (2014). Regression models for log-normal data: Comparing different methods for quantifying the association between abdominal adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 3521–3539. doi: 10.​3390/​ijerph110403521 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
go back to reference Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Is coming out always a “good thing”? Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 145–152. doi: 10.​1177/​1948550611411929​ CrossRef Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Is coming out always a “good thing”? Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 145–152. doi: 10.​1177/​1948550611411929​ CrossRef
go back to reference Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 438–443. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​bbi.​2009.​11.​011 CrossRefPubMed Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 438–443. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​bbi.​2009.​11.​011 CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McGarrity, L. A., & Huebner, D. M. (2014). Is being out about sexual orientation uniformly healthy? The moderating role of socioeconomic status in a prospective study of gay and bisexual men. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47, 28–38. doi: 10.​1007/​s12160-013-9575-6 CrossRefPubMed McGarrity, L. A., & Huebner, D. M. (2014). Is being out about sexual orientation uniformly healthy? The moderating role of socioeconomic status in a prospective study of gay and bisexual men. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47, 28–38. doi: 10.​1007/​s12160-013-9575-6 CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Meyer, I. H. (2007). Prejudice and discrimination as social stressors. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities (pp. 242–267). New York: Springer. CrossRef Meyer, I. H. (2007). Prejudice and discrimination as social stressors. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities (pp. 242–267). New York: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959–997. doi: 10.​1037/​a0024768 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959–997. doi: 10.​1037/​a0024768 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Miller, C. T., & Major, B. (2000). Coping with stigma and prejudice. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 243–272). New York: Guilford Press. Miller, C. T., & Major, B. (2000). Coping with stigma and prejudice. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 243–272). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Pachankis, J. E., & Bernstein, L. B. (2012). An etiological model of anxiety in young gay men: From early stress to public self-consciousness. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13, 107–122. doi: 10.​1037/​a0024594 CrossRef Pachankis, J. E., & Bernstein, L. B. (2012). An etiological model of anxiety in young gay men: From early stress to public self-consciousness. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13, 107–122. doi: 10.​1037/​a0024594 CrossRef
go back to reference R Core Team. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 3.0.1) [Computer software]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. R Core Team. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 3.0.1) [Computer software]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
go back to reference Ratner, K. G., Halim, M. L., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Perceived stigmatization, ingroup pride, and immune and endocrine activity: Evidence from a community sample of Black and Latina women. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 82–91. doi: 10.​1177/​1948550612443715​ CrossRef Ratner, K. G., Halim, M. L., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Perceived stigmatization, ingroup pride, and immune and endocrine activity: Evidence from a community sample of Black and Latina women. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 82–91. doi: 10.​1177/​1948550612443715​ CrossRef
go back to reference Smyth, J. M., Pennebaker, J. W., & Arigo, D. (2012). What are the health effects of disclosure? In A. Baum, T. A. Revenson, & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (2nd ed., pp. 175–191). New York, NY: Psychology Press. Smyth, J. M., Pennebaker, J. W., & Arigo, D. (2012). What are the health effects of disclosure? In A. Baum, T. A. Revenson, & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (2nd ed., pp. 175–191). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Williamson, S., Munro, C., Pickler, R., Grap, M. J., & Elswick, R. K. (2012). Comparison of biomarkers in blood and saliva in healthy adults. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012, 4. doi: 10.​1155/​2012/​246178 CrossRef Williamson, S., Munro, C., Pickler, R., Grap, M. J., & Elswick, R. K. (2012). Comparison of biomarkers in blood and saliva in healthy adults. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012, 4. doi: 10.​1155/​2012/​246178 CrossRef
go back to reference Yoshino, K. (2006). Covering: The hidden assault on our civil rights. New York: Random House. Yoshino, K. (2006). Covering: The hidden assault on our civil rights. New York: Random House.
Metagegevens
Titel
Minority stress and inflammatory mediators: covering moderates associations between perceived discrimination and salivary interleukin-6 in gay men
Auteurs
David Matthew Doyle
Lisa Molix
Publicatiedatum
17-08-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Behavioral Medicine / Uitgave 5/2016
Print ISSN: 0160-7715
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3521
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-016-9784-0