Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 3/2012

01-09-2012 | REVIEW

Mindfulness to Enhance Athletic Performance: Theoretical Considerations and Possible Impact Mechanisms

Auteurs: Daniel Birrer, Philipp Röthlin, Gareth Morgan

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Top athletes face various challenges in their career on and off the sports field. Sport psychologists teach techniques to help athletes to cope with these challenges. Over the last 30 years, the techniques used stem mainly from psychological skills training (PST), which is influenced mainly from cognitive-behavioral theories. Recently, interest in mindfulness-based interventions has increased in sport psychology. This article identifies the limits of PST and presents theoretical considerations how mindfulness-based interventions can amend PST. Further, it addresses in what form and by what mechanisms athletes could benefit. In reviewing current mindfulness literature, we conclude that it is important to distinguish between mindfulness practice and dispositional mindfulness. Mindfulness practice means the methods through which mindfulness is fostered, whereas dispositional mindfulness describes the tendency to be mindful in everyday life. In our conceptualization, we differ between three interwoven facets of mindfulness practice (intention, attention, and attitude), which are associated with six components of dispositional mindfulness. We consider that athletes with a higher degree in mindfulness practice and dispositional mindfulness will enhance the level of several required psychological skills through various impact mechanisms. Based on theoretical considerations, we suggest bare attention, experiential acceptance, values clarifications, self-regulation/negative emotion regulation, clarity about one’s internal life, exposure, flexibility, non-attachment, and rumination as possible impact mechanisms. A greater knowledge of the conceptualization of mindfulness and its impact on psychological skills could develop and improve the effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions in sports.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abrams, M. (2010). Anger management in sport: understanding and controlling violence in athletes. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics. Abrams, M. (2010). Anger management in sport: understanding and controlling violence in athletes. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics.
go back to reference Aherne, C., Aidan, P. M., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). The effect of mindfulness training on athletes' flow: an initial investigation. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 177–189. Aherne, C., Aidan, P. M., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). The effect of mindfulness training on athletes' flow: an initial investigation. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 177–189.
go back to reference Baer, R. A. (2009). Self-focused attention and mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based treatment. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 15–20.PubMedCrossRef Baer, R. A. (2009). Self-focused attention and mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based treatment. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 15–20.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.PubMedCrossRef Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.PubMedCrossRef Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beilock, S. L., & Gray, R. (2007). Why do athletes “choke” under pressure? In G. Tennebaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 425–444). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Beilock, S. L., & Gray, R. (2007). Why do athletes “choke” under pressure? In G. Tennebaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 425–444). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Berking, M., & Znoj, H.-J. (2006). Achtsamkeit und emotionsregulation: when East meets West – chancen und risiken [Mindfulness and emotion regulation: when East meets West – opportunities and risks]. Psychotherapie im Dialog, 7, 307–312 Berking, M., & Znoj, H.-J. (2006). Achtsamkeit und emotionsregulation: when East meets West – chancen und risiken [Mindfulness and emotion regulation: when East meets West – opportunities and risks]. Psychotherapie im Dialog, 7, 307–312
go back to reference Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., & Fournier, J. F. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance approaches in sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 320–333. Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., & Fournier, J. F. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance approaches in sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 320–333.
go back to reference Biddle, S., Hanrahan, S., & Sellars, C. (2001). Attributions: past, present and future. In R. Singer, H. Hausenblas, & C. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 444–471). New York, NY: Wiley. Biddle, S., Hanrahan, S., & Sellars, C. (2001). Attributions: past, present and future. In R. Singer, H. Hausenblas, & C. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 444–471). New York, NY: Wiley.
go back to reference Binsch, O., Oudejans, R. R. D., Bakker, F. C., & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (2009). Unwanted effects in aiming actions: the relationship between gaze behavior and performance in a golf putting task. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10, 628–635.CrossRef Binsch, O., Oudejans, R. R. D., Bakker, F. C., & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (2009). Unwanted effects in aiming actions: the relationship between gaze behavior and performance in a golf putting task. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10, 628–635.CrossRef
go back to reference Binsch, O., Oudejans, R. R. D., Bakker, F. C., & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (2010). Ironic effects and final target fixation in a penalty shooting task. Human Movement Science, 29, 277–288.PubMedCrossRef Binsch, O., Oudejans, R. R. D., Bakker, F. C., & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (2010). Ironic effects and final target fixation in a penalty shooting task. Human Movement Science, 29, 277–288.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Birrer, D., & Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 78–87.CrossRef Birrer, D., & Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 78–87.CrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology—Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.CrossRef Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology—Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.CrossRef
go back to reference Bohart, A. (1983). Detachment: a variable common to many psychotherapies? Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA. Bohart, A. (1983). Detachment: a variable common to many psychotherapies? Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.
go back to reference Bohus, M., & Huppertz, M. (2006). Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Psychotherapie. Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 54, 265–276.CrossRef Bohus, M., & Huppertz, M. (2006). Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Psychotherapie. Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 54, 265–276.CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMedCrossRef Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. A., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.CrossRef Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. A., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.CrossRef
go back to reference Carmody, J. (2009). Invited commentary: evolving conceptions of mindfulness in clinical settings. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 270–280.CrossRef Carmody, J. (2009). Invited commentary: evolving conceptions of mindfulness in clinical settings. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 270–280.CrossRef
go back to reference Carmody, J., Baer, R. A., Lykins, E. L. B., & Olendzki, N. (2009). An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 613–626.PubMedCrossRef Carmody, J., Baer, R. A., Lykins, E. L. B., & Olendzki, N. (2009). An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 613–626.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1988). A control perspective on anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 17–22.CrossRef Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1988). A control perspective on anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 17–22.CrossRef
go back to reference Cash, M., & Whittingham, K. (2010). What facets of mindfulness contribute to psychological well-being and depressive, anxious, and stress-related symptomatology? Mindfulness, 1, 177–182.CrossRef Cash, M., & Whittingham, K. (2010). What facets of mindfulness contribute to psychological well-being and depressive, anxious, and stress-related symptomatology? Mindfulness, 1, 177–182.CrossRef
go back to reference Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.CrossRef Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.CrossRef
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239–1252.PubMedCrossRef Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239–1252.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449–464.PubMedCrossRef Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449–464.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coffey, K. A., Hartman, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness, 1, 235–253.CrossRef Coffey, K. A., Hartman, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness, 1, 235–253.CrossRef
go back to reference Daw, J., & Burton, D. (1994). Evaluation of a comprehensive psychological skills training program for collegiate tennis players. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 37–57. Daw, J., & Burton, D. (1994). Evaluation of a comprehensive psychological skills training program for collegiate tennis players. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 37–57.
go back to reference De Petrillo, L. A., Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: an open trial using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 357–376. De Petrillo, L. A., Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: an open trial using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 357–376.
go back to reference Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
go back to reference Deikman, A. J. (1982). The observing self. Boston: Beacon. Deikman, A. J. (1982). The observing self. Boston: Beacon.
go back to reference Dorjee, D. (2010). Kinds and dimensions of mindfulness: why it is important to distinguish them. Mindfulness, 1, 152–160.CrossRef Dorjee, D. (2010). Kinds and dimensions of mindfulness: why it is important to distinguish them. Mindfulness, 1, 152–160.CrossRef
go back to reference Elbe, A.-M., Beckmann, J., & Szymanski, B. (2003). Die Entwicklung des allgemeinen und sportspezifischen Leistungsmotivs von Sportinternatsschüler/innen. Psychologie und Sport, 10, 134–143. Elbe, A.-M., Beckmann, J., & Szymanski, B. (2003). Die Entwicklung des allgemeinen und sportspezifischen Leistungsmotivs von Sportinternatsschüler/innen. Psychologie und Sport, 10, 134–143.
go back to reference Gardner, F. L., & Moore, Z. E. (2006). Clinical sport psychology. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics. Gardner, F. L., & Moore, Z. E. (2006). Clinical sport psychology. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics.
go back to reference Gardner, F. L., & Moore, Z. E. (2007). The psychology of enhancing human performance. The mindfulness–acceptance–commitment approach (MAC). New York, NY: Springer. Gardner, F. L., & Moore, Z. E. (2007). The psychology of enhancing human performance. The mindfulness–acceptance–commitment approach (MAC). New York, NY: Springer.
go back to reference Gooding, A., & Gardner, F. L. (2009). An empirical investigation on the relationship between mindfulness, pre shot routine, and basketball free throw percentage. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3, 303–319. Gooding, A., & Gardner, F. L. (2009). An empirical investigation on the relationship between mindfulness, pre shot routine, and basketball free throw percentage. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3, 303–319.
go back to reference Greenough, W., & Black, J. (1992). Induction of brain structure by experience: substrates for cognitive development. In M. Gunnar & C. A. Nelson (Eds.), Developmental behavioral neuroscience: the Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (pp. 155–200). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Greenough, W., & Black, J. (1992). Induction of brain structure by experience: substrates for cognitive development. In M. Gunnar & C. A. Nelson (Eds.), Developmental behavioral neuroscience: the Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (pp. 155–200). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
go back to reference Hanson, S. J., McCullagh, P., & Tonymon, P. (1992). The relationship of personality characteristics, life stress, and coping resources to athletic injury. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 262–272. Hanson, S. J., McCullagh, P., & Tonymon, P. (1992). The relationship of personality characteristics, life stress, and coping resources to athletic injury. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 262–272.
go back to reference Hardy, L., Jones, G., & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation for sport: theory and practice of elite performers. New York: Wiley. Hardy, L., Jones, G., & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation for sport: theory and practice of elite performers. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Relational Frame Theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665.CrossRef Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Relational Frame Theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665.CrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., Duda, J. L., & Appleton, P. R. (2011). The cognitive, affective and behavioural responses of self-oriented perfectionists following successive failure on a muscular endurance task. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9, 189–207.CrossRef Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., Duda, J. L., & Appleton, P. R. (2011). The cognitive, affective and behavioural responses of self-oriented perfectionists following successive failure on a muscular endurance task. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9, 189–207.CrossRef
go back to reference Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169–183.PubMedCrossRef Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169–183.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Janelle, C. M. (1999). Ironic mental processes in sport: implications for sport psychologists. Sport Psychologist, 13, 201–220. Janelle, C. M. (1999). Ironic mental processes in sport: implications for sport psychologists. Sport Psychologist, 13, 201–220.
go back to reference Jones, C. M., & Tenenbaum, G. (2009). Adjustment disorder: a new way of conceptualizing the overtraining syndrome. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2(2), 181–197.CrossRef Jones, C. M., & Tenenbaum, G. (2009). Adjustment disorder: a new way of conceptualizing the overtraining syndrome. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2(2), 181–197.CrossRef
go back to reference Jordet, G., & Hartman, E. (2008). Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 450–457. Jordet, G., & Hartman, E. (2008). Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 450–457.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioural medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfuness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–42.PubMedCrossRef Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioural medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfuness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–42.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J., Beall, B., & Rippe, J. (1985). A systematic mental training program based on mindfulness meditation to optimize performance in collegiate and Olympic rowers. Paper presented at the World Congress in Sport Psychology, Copenhagen, Denmark, June Kabat-Zinn, J., Beall, B., & Rippe, J. (1985). A systematic mental training program based on mindfulness meditation to optimize performance in collegiate and Olympic rowers. Paper presented at the World Congress in Sport Psychology, Copenhagen, Denmark, June
go back to reference Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). An evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): a new mental training approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 334–356. Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). An evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): a new mental training approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 334–356.
go back to reference Kee, Y. H., & Wang, C. K. J. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness, flow dispositions and mental skills adoption: a cluster analytic approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 393–411.CrossRef Kee, Y. H., & Wang, C. K. J. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness, flow dispositions and mental skills adoption: a cluster analytic approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 393–411.CrossRef
go back to reference Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002). Attaining personal goals: self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 231–244.PubMedCrossRef Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002). Attaining personal goals: self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 231–244.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Martin, J. R. (1997). Mindfulness: a proposed common factor. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 7, 291–312.CrossRef Martin, J. R. (1997). Mindfulness: a proposed common factor. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 7, 291–312.CrossRef
go back to reference Masters, R. (1992). Knowledge knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 343–358.CrossRef Masters, R. (1992). Knowledge knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 343–358.CrossRef
go back to reference Masters, R., & Maxwell, J. (2008). The theory of reinvestment. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1, 160–183.CrossRef Masters, R., & Maxwell, J. (2008). The theory of reinvestment. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1, 160–183.CrossRef
go back to reference Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Gleeson, M., Rietjens, G., Steinacker, J., & Urhausen, A. (2006). Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the overtraining syndrome. European Journal of Sport Science, 6, 1–14.CrossRef Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Gleeson, M., Rietjens, G., Steinacker, J., & Urhausen, A. (2006). Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the overtraining syndrome. European Journal of Sport Science, 6, 1–14.CrossRef
go back to reference Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behaviour modification: an integrative approach. New York: Plenum. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behaviour modification: an integrative approach. New York: Plenum.
go back to reference Moore, Z. E. (2009). Theoretical and empirical developments of the Mindfulness–Acceptance–Commitment (MAC) approach to performance enhancement. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 291–302. Moore, Z. E. (2009). Theoretical and empirical developments of the Mindfulness–Acceptance–Commitment (MAC) approach to performance enhancement. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 291–302.
go back to reference Moran, A. (2010). Concentration/attention. In S. J. Hanrahan & M. B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology (pp. 500–509). New York: Routledge. Moran, A. (2010). Concentration/attention. In S. J. Hanrahan & M. B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology (pp. 500–509). New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Ortner, C. N. M., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 271–283.CrossRef Ortner, C. N. M., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 271–283.CrossRef
go back to reference Raes, F., & Williams, J. M. G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1. Raes, F., & Williams, J. M. G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1.
go back to reference Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New York: Basic Books. Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Sbrocco, T., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Conceptualizing the cognitive component of sexual arousal: implications for sexuality research and treatment. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 419–449). New York: Guilford. Sbrocco, T., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Conceptualizing the cognitive component of sexual arousal: implications for sexuality research and treatment. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 419–449). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the Mindfulness–Acceptance–Commitment (MAC) Protocol with an adolescent springboard diver: the case of Steve. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3, 377–396. Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the Mindfulness–Acceptance–Commitment (MAC) Protocol with an adolescent springboard diver: the case of Steve. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3, 377–396.
go back to reference Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Seiler, R., & Stock, A. (1994). Handbuch Psychotraining im Sport. Methoden im Überblick [Handbook psychological training in sport: methods at a glance]. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. Seiler, R., & Stock, A. (1994). Handbuch Psychotraining im Sport. Methoden im Überblick [Handbook psychological training in sport: methods at a glance]. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373–386.PubMedCrossRef Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373–386.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275–287.PubMedCrossRef Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275–287.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Thompson, R. W., Kaufman, K. A., De Petrillo, L. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2011). One year follow-up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5, 99–116. Thompson, R. W., Kaufman, K. A., De Petrillo, L. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2011). One year follow-up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5, 99–116.
go back to reference Vealey, S. R. (2007). Mental skills training in sport. In G. Tenenbaum, R. Eklund, & R. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology. New Jersey: Wiley. Vealey, S. R. (2007). Mental skills training in sport. In G. Tenenbaum, R. Eklund, & R. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
go back to reference Way, B. M., Creswell, J. D., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2006). Associations between dispositional mindfulness and genetic variation of MAOA. Unpublished raw data. Los Angeles: University of California. Way, B. M., Creswell, J. D., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2006). Associations between dispositional mindfulness and genetic variation of MAOA. Unpublished raw data. Los Angeles: University of California.
go back to reference Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognition: innovative cognitive therapy. New York: Wiley. Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognition: innovative cognitive therapy. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Wulf, G., Töllner, T., & Shea, C. (2007). Attentional focus effects as a function of task complexity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, 257–264.PubMedCrossRef Wulf, G., Töllner, T., & Shea, C. (2007). Attentional focus effects as a function of task complexity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, 257–264.PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Mindfulness to Enhance Athletic Performance: Theoretical Considerations and Possible Impact Mechanisms
Auteurs
Daniel Birrer
Philipp Röthlin
Gareth Morgan
Publicatiedatum
01-09-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2012
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0109-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2012

Mindfulness 3/2012 Naar de uitgave

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Mindfulness and Democracy