Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

14-11-2020 | REVIEW

Mindfulness as Attention Training: Meta-Analyses on the Links Between Attention Performance and Mindfulness Interventions, Long-Term Meditation Practice, and Trait Mindfulness

Auteur: Paul Verhaeghen

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

To examine whether mindfulness training is associated with changes in objective attention performance.

Methods

Three meta-analyses were conducted: (a) a meta-analysis comparing the effects of mindfulness interventions with those of control treatments (109 effect sizes from 40 studies); (b) a meta-analysis comparing attention performance of long-term meditators with that of meditation-naïve participants (59 effect sizes from 18 studies); and (c) a meta-analysis comparing correlations between trait mindfulness and attention (197 effect sizes from 28 studies).

Results

Average effect sizes were significant (Hedges’ g = 0.29 for intervention studies, 0.32 for long-term meditation practice; r between trait mindfulness and attention = 0.12). All three analyses found significant effects on inhibition/executive control. Two out of the three analyses showed significant effects on updating and sustained attention. Shifting yielded significant effects only for interventions. Effects were larger for accuracy than for speed. Within intervention studies, focused attention led to significant effects, but inclusion of a yoga component decreased effects significantly. Number of sessions was positively related to attention performance. In long-term meditators, type of meditation practiced did not significantly moderate the effect size. Within trait mindfulness studies, only unidimensional measures and measures of acting with awareness yielded an average correlation that was significantly different from zero.

Conclusions

Mindfulness training as an intervention and a long-term practice is indeed associated with reliable changes in objective attention performance. The finding that this is also true for trait mindfulness suggests that mindfulness is a key mechanism.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference *Ainsworth, B., Eddershaw, R., Meron, D., Baldwin, D. S., & Garner, M. (2013). The effect of focused attention and open monitoring meditation on attention network function in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Research, 210, 1226-1231.PubMed *Ainsworth, B., Eddershaw, R., Meron, D., Baldwin, D. S., & Garner, M. (2013). The effect of focused attention and open monitoring meditation on attention network function in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Research, 210, 1226-1231.PubMed
go back to reference *Allen, M., Dietz, M., Blair, K. S., van Beek, M., Rees, G., Vestergaard-Poulsen, P., Lutz, A., & Roepstorff, A. (2012). Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 15601-15610.PubMed *Allen, M., Dietz, M., Blair, K. S., van Beek, M., Rees, G., Vestergaard-Poulsen, P., Lutz, A., & Roepstorff, A. (2012). Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 15601-15610.PubMed
go back to reference *Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 14, 449-463. *Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 14, 449-463.
go back to reference *Andreu, C. I., Moënne-Loccoz, C., López, V., Slagter, H. A., Franken, I. H., & Cosmelli, D. (2017). Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of enhanced performance monitoring in meditators. Mindfulness, 8, 1603-1614. *Andreu, C. I., Moënne-Loccoz, C., López, V., Slagter, H. A., Franken, I. H., & Cosmelli, D. (2017). Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of enhanced performance monitoring in meditators. Mindfulness, 8, 1603-1614.
go back to reference *Anicha, C. L., Ode, S., Moeller, S. K., & Robinson, M. D. (2012). Toward a cognitive view of trait mindfulness: distinct cognitive skills predict its observing and nonreactivity facets. Journal of Personality, 80, 255-285.PubMed *Anicha, C. L., Ode, S., Moeller, S. K., & Robinson, M. D. (2012). Toward a cognitive view of trait mindfulness: distinct cognitive skills predict its observing and nonreactivity facets. Journal of Personality, 80, 255-285.PubMed
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.PubMed Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.PubMed
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.PubMed Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.PubMed
go back to reference *Banks, J. B., Welhaf, M. S., & Srour, A. (2015). The protective effects of brief mindfulness meditation training. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 277-285.PubMed *Banks, J. B., Welhaf, M. S., & Srour, A. (2015). The protective effects of brief mindfulness meditation training. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 277-285.PubMed
go back to reference *Becerra, R., Dandrade, C., & Harms, C. (2017). Can specific attentional skills be modified with mindfulness training for novice practitioners?. Current Psychology, 36, 657-664. *Becerra, R., Dandrade, C., & Harms, C. (2017). Can specific attentional skills be modified with mindfulness training for novice practitioners?. Current Psychology, 36, 657-664.
go back to reference *Beck, A. R., Verticchio, H., Seeman, S., Milliken, E., & Schaab, H. (2017). A mindfulness practice for communication sciences and disorders undergraduate and speech-language pathology graduate students: effects on stress, self-compassion, and perfectionism. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 893-907.PubMed *Beck, A. R., Verticchio, H., Seeman, S., Milliken, E., & Schaab, H. (2017). A mindfulness practice for communication sciences and disorders undergraduate and speech-language pathology graduate students: effects on stress, self-compassion, and perfectionism. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 893-907.PubMed
go back to reference Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2015). Meditation practice and self-reported mindfulness: a cross-sectional investigation of meditators and non-meditators using the comprehensive inventory of mindfulness experiences (CHIME). Mindfulness, 6, 1411–1421. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2015). Meditation practice and self-reported mindfulness: a cross-sectional investigation of meditators and non-meditators using the comprehensive inventory of mindfulness experiences (CHIME). Mindfulness, 6, 1411–1421.
go back to reference *Bhayee, S., Tomaszewski, P., Lee, D. H., Moffat, G., Pino, L., Moreno, S., & Farb, N. A. (2016). Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial. BMC psychology, 4, 60.PubMedPubMedCentral *Bhayee, S., Tomaszewski, P., Lee, D. H., Moffat, G., Pino, L., Moreno, S., & Farb, N. A. (2016). Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial. BMC psychology, 4, 60.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Black, D. S., Semple, R. J., Pokhrel, P., & Grenard, J. L. (2011). Component processes of executive function—mindfulness, self-control, and working memory—and their relationships with mental and behavioral health. Mindfulness, 2, 179-185.PubMedPubMedCentral *Black, D. S., Semple, R. J., Pokhrel, P., & Grenard, J. L. (2011). Component processes of executive function—mindfulness, self-control, and working memory—and their relationships with mental and behavioral health. Mindfulness, 2, 179-185.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Bopp, K. L., & Verhaeghen, P. (2005). Aging and verbal memory span: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, 223–233. Bopp, K. L., & Verhaeghen, P. (2005). Aging and verbal memory span: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, 223–233.
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMed Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMed
go back to reference Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15, 204–223.PubMed Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15, 204–223.PubMed
go back to reference *Cardeña, E., Sjöstedt, J. O., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). Sustained attention and motivation in Zen meditators and non-meditators. Mindfulness, 6, 1082-1087. *Cardeña, E., Sjöstedt, J. O., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). Sustained attention and motivation in Zen meditators and non-meditators. Mindfulness, 6, 1082-1087.
go back to reference *Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303-322. *Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303-322.
go back to reference *Chan, D., & Woollacott, M. (2007). Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved?. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(6), 651-658.PubMed *Chan, D., & Woollacott, M. (2007). Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved?. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(6), 651-658.PubMed
go back to reference *Chang, J. H., Kuo, C. Y., Huang, C. L., & Lin, Y. C. (2018). The flexible effect of mindfulness on cognitive control. Mindfulness, 9, 792-800. *Chang, J. H., Kuo, C. Y., Huang, C. L., & Lin, Y. C. (2018). The flexible effect of mindfulness on cognitive control. Mindfulness, 9, 792-800.
go back to reference Cheung, M. W. L. (2014). Modeling dependent effect sizes with three-level meta-analyses: a structural equation modeling approach. Psychological Methods, 19, 211–229.PubMed Cheung, M. W. L. (2014). Modeling dependent effect sizes with three-level meta-analyses: a structural equation modeling approach. Psychological Methods, 19, 211–229.PubMed
go back to reference Cheung, M. W. L. (2015). metaSEM: an R package for meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1521.PubMedPubMedCentral Cheung, M. W. L. (2015). metaSEM: an R package for meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1521.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Malinowski, P. (2011). Mindfulness-based approaches: are they all the same? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 404–424.PubMed Chiesa, A., & Malinowski, P. (2011). Mindfulness-based approaches: are they all the same? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 404–424.PubMed
go back to reference Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449–464.PubMed Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449–464.PubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.PubMed Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.PubMed
go back to reference *Course-Choi, J., Saville, H., & Derakshan, N. (2017). The effects of adaptive working memory training and mindfulness meditation training on processing efficiency and worry in high worriers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 89, 1-13.PubMed *Course-Choi, J., Saville, H., & Derakshan, N. (2017). The effects of adaptive working memory training and mindfulness meditation training on processing efficiency and worry in high worriers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 89, 1-13.PubMed
go back to reference *Di Francesco, S. A., Simione, L., López-Ramón, M. F., Belardinelli, M. O., Lupiáñez, J., & Raffone, A. (2017). Dispositional mindfulness facets predict the efficiency of attentional networks. Mindfulness, 8, 101-109. *Di Francesco, S. A., Simione, L., López-Ramón, M. F., Belardinelli, M. O., Lupiáñez, J., & Raffone, A. (2017). Dispositional mindfulness facets predict the efficiency of attentional networks. Mindfulness, 8, 101-109.
go back to reference *Dubert, C. J., Schumacher, A. M., Locker, L., Gutierrez, A. P., & Barnes, V. A. (2016). Mindfulness and emotion regulation among nursing students: investigating the mediation effect of working memory capacity. Mindfulness, 7, 1061-1070. *Dubert, C. J., Schumacher, A. M., Locker, L., Gutierrez, A. P., & Barnes, V. A. (2016). Mindfulness and emotion regulation among nursing students: investigating the mediation effect of working memory capacity. Mindfulness, 7, 1061-1070.
go back to reference Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot—based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56, 455–463.PubMed Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot—based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56, 455–463.PubMed
go back to reference Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174–189. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174–189.
go back to reference *Erskine, J. A., Georgiou, G. J., Joshi, M., Deans, A., & Colegate, C. (2017). Ageing and thought suppression performance: its relationship with working memory capacity, habitual thought suppression and mindfulness. Consciousness and Cognition, 53, 211-221.PubMed *Erskine, J. A., Georgiou, G. J., Joshi, M., Deans, A., & Colegate, C. (2017). Ageing and thought suppression performance: its relationship with working memory capacity, habitual thought suppression and mindfulness. Consciousness and Cognition, 53, 211-221.PubMed
go back to reference *Esch, T., Winkler, J., Auwärter, V., Gnann, H., Huber, R., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Neurobiological aspects of mindfulness in pain autoregulation: unexpected results from a randomized-controlled trial and possible implications for meditation research. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 674.PubMedPubMedCentral *Esch, T., Winkler, J., Auwärter, V., Gnann, H., Huber, R., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Neurobiological aspects of mindfulness in pain autoregulation: unexpected results from a randomized-controlled trial and possible implications for meditation research. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 674.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Fabio, R. A., & Towey, G. E. (2018). Long-term meditation: the relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness. Cognitive Processing, 19, 73-85.PubMed *Fabio, R. A., & Towey, G. E. (2018). Long-term meditation: the relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness. Cognitive Processing, 19, 73-85.PubMed
go back to reference Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 340–347.PubMed Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 340–347.PubMed
go back to reference *Fan, Y., Tang, Y. Y., Tang, R., & Posner, M. I. (2015). Time course of conflict processing modulated by brief meditation training. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 911.PubMedPubMedCentral *Fan, Y., Tang, Y. Y., Tang, R., & Posner, M. I. (2015). Time course of conflict processing modulated by brief meditation training. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 911.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177–190. Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177–190.
go back to reference *Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: a pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 182-195. *Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: a pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 182-195.
go back to reference *Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Londeree, A., Whitmoyer, P., & Prakash, R. S. (2016). Dispositional mindfulness and the wandering mind: implications for attentional control in older adults. Consciousness and Cognition, 44, 193-204.PubMed *Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Londeree, A., Whitmoyer, P., & Prakash, R. S. (2016). Dispositional mindfulness and the wandering mind: implications for attentional control in older adults. Consciousness and Cognition, 44, 193-204.PubMed
go back to reference Fox, K. C., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M. L., Floman, J. L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S. P., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 48–73. Fox, K. C., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M. L., Floman, J. L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S. P., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 48–73.
go back to reference *Galla, B. M., Hale, T. S., Shrestha, A., Loo, S. K., & Smalley, S. L. (2012). The disciplined mind: associations between the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills and attention control. Mindfulness, 3, 95-103. *Galla, B. M., Hale, T. S., Shrestha, A., Loo, S. K., & Smalley, S. L. (2012). The disciplined mind: associations between the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills and attention control. Mindfulness, 3, 95-103.
go back to reference Gamboz, N., Zamarian, S., & Cavallero, C. (2010). Age-related differences in the attention network test (ANT). Experimental Aging Research, 36, 287–305.PubMed Gamboz, N., Zamarian, S., & Cavallero, C. (2010). Age-related differences in the attention network test (ANT). Experimental Aging Research, 36, 287–305.PubMed
go back to reference *Giannandrea, A., Simione, L., Pescatori, B., Ferrell, K., Belardinelli, M. O., Hickman, S. D., & Raffone, A. (2019). Effects of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program on mind wandering and dispositional mindfulness facets. Mindfulness, 10, 185-195. *Giannandrea, A., Simione, L., Pescatori, B., Ferrell, K., Belardinelli, M. O., Hickman, S. D., & Raffone, A. (2019). Effects of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program on mind wandering and dispositional mindfulness facets. Mindfulness, 10, 185-195.
go back to reference Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., Berger, Z., Sleicher, D., Maron, D., Shihab, H. M., Ranasinghe, P. D., Linn, S., Saha, S., Bass, E., & Haythornthwaite, J. A. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174, 357–368.PubMedPubMedCentral Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., Berger, Z., Sleicher, D., Maron, D., Shihab, H. M., Ranasinghe, P. D., Linn, S., Saha, S., Bass, E., & Haythornthwaite, J. A. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174, 357–368.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Greenberg, J., Reiner, K., & Meiran, N. (2013). “Off with the old”: mindfulness practice improves backward inhibition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 618.PubMedPubMedCentral *Greenberg, J., Reiner, K., & Meiran, N. (2013). “Off with the old”: mindfulness practice improves backward inhibition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 618.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Greenberg, J., Romero, V. L., Elkin-Frankston, S., Bezdek, M. A., Schumacher, E. H., & Lazar, S. W. (2019). Reduced interference in working memory following mindfulness training is associated with increases in hippocampal volume. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 13, 366-376.PubMed *Greenberg, J., Romero, V. L., Elkin-Frankston, S., Bezdek, M. A., Schumacher, E. H., & Lazar, S. W. (2019). Reduced interference in working memory following mindfulness training is associated with increases in hippocampal volume. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 13, 366-376.PubMed
go back to reference Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (2015). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic press. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (2015). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic press.
go back to reference *Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., & Philippot, P. (2009). The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 403-409.PubMed *Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., & Philippot, P. (2009). The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 403-409.PubMed
go back to reference Hodgins, H. S., & Adair, K. C. (2010). Attentional processes and meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 872–878.PubMed Hodgins, H. S., & Adair, K. C. (2010). Attentional processes and meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 872–878.PubMed
go back to reference *Isbel, B., & Mahar, D. (2015). Cognitive mechanisms of mindfulness: a test of current models. Consciousness and Cognition, 38, 50-59.PubMed *Isbel, B., & Mahar, D. (2015). Cognitive mechanisms of mindfulness: a test of current models. Consciousness and Cognition, 38, 50-59.PubMed
go back to reference *Jensen, C. G., Vangkilde, S., Frokjaer, V., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (2012). Mindfulness training affects attention—or is it attentional effort?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 106-123. *Jensen, C. G., Vangkilde, S., Frokjaer, V., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (2012). Mindfulness training affects attention—or is it attentional effort?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 106-123.
go back to reference *Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109-119. *Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109-119.
go back to reference *Jha, A. P., Stanley, E. A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., & Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10(1), 54-64.PubMed *Jha, A. P., Stanley, E. A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., & Gelfand, L. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10(1), 54-64.PubMed
go back to reference *Jha, A. P., Morrison, A. B., Dainer-Best, J., Parker, S., Rostrup, N., & Stanley, E. A. (2015). Minds “at attention”: mindfulness training curbs attentional lapses in military cohorts. PloS One, 10, e0116889. *Jha, A. P., Morrison, A. B., Dainer-Best, J., Parker, S., Rostrup, N., & Stanley, E. A. (2015). Minds “at attention”: mindfulness training curbs attentional lapses in military cohorts. PloS One, 10, e0116889.
go back to reference *Jo, H. G., Malinowski, P., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Frontal theta dynamics during response conflict in long-term mindfulness meditators. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11, 299.PubMedPubMedCentral *Jo, H. G., Malinowski, P., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Frontal theta dynamics during response conflict in long-term mindfulness meditators. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11, 299.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Josefsson, T., & Broberg, A. (2011). Meditators and non-meditators on sustained and executive attentional performance. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14, 291-309. *Josefsson, T., & Broberg, A. (2011). Meditators and non-meditators on sustained and executive attentional performance. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14, 291-309.
go back to reference *Josefsson, T., Lindwall, M., & Broberg, A. G. (2014). The effects of a short-term mindfulness based intervention on self-reported mindfulness, decentering, executive attention, psychological health, and coping style: examining unique mindfulness effects and mediators. Mindfulness, 5, 18-35. *Josefsson, T., Lindwall, M., & Broberg, A. G. (2014). The effects of a short-term mindfulness based intervention on self-reported mindfulness, decentering, executive attention, psychological health, and coping style: examining unique mindfulness effects and mediators. Mindfulness, 5, 18-35.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.
go back to reference Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: an individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 637–671. Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: an individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 637–671.
go back to reference Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychological Science, 25, 2027–2037.PubMed Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychological Science, 25, 2027–2037.PubMed
go back to reference *Kozasa, E. H., Sato, J. R., Lacerda, S. S., Barreiros, M. A., Radvany, J., Russell, T. A., Sanchez, L. G., Mello, L. E. A. M., & Amaro Jr, E. (2012). Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. Neuroimage, 59, 745-749.PubMed *Kozasa, E. H., Sato, J. R., Lacerda, S. S., Barreiros, M. A., Radvany, J., Russell, T. A., Sanchez, L. G., Mello, L. E. A. M., & Amaro Jr, E. (2012). Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. Neuroimage, 59, 745-749.PubMed
go back to reference Lao, S. A., Kissane, D., & Meadows, G. (2016). Cognitive effects of MBSR/MBCT: a systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes. Consciousness and Cognition, 45, 109–123.PubMed Lao, S. A., Kissane, D., & Meadows, G. (2016). Cognitive effects of MBSR/MBCT: a systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes. Consciousness and Cognition, 45, 109–123.PubMed
go back to reference *Lee, Y. C., & Chao, H. F. (2012). The role of active inhibitory control in psychological well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 618-621. *Lee, Y. C., & Chao, H. F. (2012). The role of active inhibitory control in psychological well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 618-621.
go back to reference *Lee, T. M., Leung, M. K., Hou, W. K., Tang, J. C., Yin, J., So, K. F., Lee, C. F. & Chan, C. C. H. (2012). Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation. PloS one, 7, e40054.PubMedPubMedCentral *Lee, T. M., Leung, M. K., Hou, W. K., Tang, J. C., Yin, J., So, K. F., Lee, C. F. & Chan, C. C. H. (2012). Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation. PloS one, 7, e40054.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment: confirmation from meta-analysis. American Psychologist, 48, 1181–1209. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment: confirmation from meta-analysis. American Psychologist, 48, 1181–1209.
go back to reference Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends In Cognitive Sciences, 12, 163–169.PubMedPubMedCentral Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends In Cognitive Sciences, 12, 163–169.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Lykins, E. L., Baer, R. A., & Gottlob, L. R. (2012). Performance-based tests of attention and memory in long-term mindfulness meditators and demographically matched nonmeditators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 103-114. *Lykins, E. L., Baer, R. A., & Gottlob, L. R. (2012). Performance-based tests of attention and memory in long-term mindfulness meditators and demographically matched nonmeditators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 103-114.
go back to reference Malinowski, P. (2013). Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 8.PubMedPubMedCentral Malinowski, P. (2013). Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 8.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Malinowski, P., Moore, A. W., Mead, B. R., & Gruber, T. (2017). Mindful aging: the effects of regular brief mindfulness practice on electrophysiological markers of cognitive and affective processing in older adults. Mindfulness, 8, 78-94.PubMed *Malinowski, P., Moore, A. W., Mead, B. R., & Gruber, T. (2017). Mindful aging: the effects of regular brief mindfulness practice on electrophysiological markers of cognitive and affective processing in older adults. Mindfulness, 8, 78-94.PubMed
go back to reference *Mallya, S., & Fiocco, A. J. (2016). Effects of mindfulness training on cognition and well-being in healthy older adults. Mindfulness, 7, 453-465. *Mallya, S., & Fiocco, A. J. (2016). Effects of mindfulness training on cognition and well-being in healthy older adults. Mindfulness, 7, 453-465.
go back to reference May, C. J., Burgard, M., Mena, M., Abbasi, I., Bernhardt, N., Clemens, S., Curtis, E., Daggett, E., Hauch, J., Housh, K., Janz, A., Lindstrum, A., Luttropp, K., & Williamson, R. (2011). Short-term training in loving-kindness meditation produces a state, but not a trait, alteration of attention. Mindfulness, 2, 143–153. May, C. J., Burgard, M., Mena, M., Abbasi, I., Bernhardt, N., Clemens, S., Curtis, E., Daggett, E., Hauch, J., Housh, K., Janz, A., Lindstrum, A., Luttropp, K., & Williamson, R. (2011). Short-term training in loving-kindness meditation produces a state, but not a trait, alteration of attention. Mindfulness, 2, 143–153.
go back to reference *Meland, A., Ishimatsu, K., Pensgaard, A. M., Wagstaff, A., Fonne, V., Garde, A. H., & Harris, A. (2015). Impact of mindfulness training on physiological measures of stress and objective measures of attention control in a military helicopter unit. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 25, 191-208.PubMed *Meland, A., Ishimatsu, K., Pensgaard, A. M., Wagstaff, A., Fonne, V., Garde, A. H., & Harris, A. (2015). Impact of mindfulness training on physiological measures of stress and objective measures of attention control in a military helicopter unit. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 25, 191-208.PubMed
go back to reference Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49, 270–291.PubMed Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49, 270–291.PubMed
go back to reference *Melloni, M., Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Reynoso, M., Gelormini, C., Favaloro, R., Canales-Johnson, A., Sigman, M., Manes, F. & Ibanez, A. (2013). Preliminary evidence about the effects of meditation on interoceptive sensitivity and social cognition. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 9, 47.PubMedPubMedCentral *Melloni, M., Sedeño, L., Couto, B., Reynoso, M., Gelormini, C., Favaloro, R., Canales-Johnson, A., Sigman, M., Manes, F. & Ibanez, A. (2013). Preliminary evidence about the effects of meditation on interoceptive sensitivity and social cognition. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 9, 47.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.PubMed Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.PubMed
go back to reference Moeyaert, M., Ugille, M., Natasha Beretvas, S., Ferron, J., Bunuan, R., & Van den Noortgate, W. (2017). Methods for dealing with multiple outcomes in meta-analysis: a comparison between averaging effect sizes, robust variance estimation and multilevel meta-analysis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20, 559–572. Moeyaert, M., Ugille, M., Natasha Beretvas, S., Ferron, J., Bunuan, R., & Van den Noortgate, W. (2017). Methods for dealing with multiple outcomes in meta-analysis: a comparison between averaging effect sizes, robust variance estimation and multilevel meta-analysis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20, 559–572.
go back to reference Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7). Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7).
go back to reference *Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 176-186.PubMed *Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 176-186.PubMed
go back to reference *Moore, A. W., Gruber, T., Derose, J., & Malinowski, P. (2012). Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 18.PubMedPubMedCentral *Moore, A. W., Gruber, T., Derose, J., & Malinowski, P. (2012). Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 18.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Morris, S. B. (2008). Estimating effect sizes from pretest-posttest-control group designs. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 364–386. Morris, S. B. (2008). Estimating effect sizes from pretest-posttest-control group designs. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 364–386.
go back to reference *Morrison, A. B., Goolsarran, M., Rogers, S. L., & Jha, A. P. (2014). Taming a wandering attention: short-form mindfulness training in student cohorts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 897.PubMedPubMedCentral *Morrison, A. B., Goolsarran, M., Rogers, S. L., & Jha, A. P. (2014). Taming a wandering attention: short-form mindfulness training in student cohorts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 897.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Moynihan, J. A., Chapman, B. P., Klorman, R., Krasner, M. S., Duberstein, P. R., Brown, K. W., & Talbot, N. L. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults: effects on executive function, frontal alpha asymmetry and immune function. Neuropsychobiology, 68, 34-43.PubMed *Moynihan, J. A., Chapman, B. P., Klorman, R., Krasner, M. S., Duberstein, P. R., Brown, K. W., & Talbot, N. L. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults: effects on executive function, frontal alpha asymmetry and immune function. Neuropsychobiology, 68, 34-43.PubMed
go back to reference *Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24, 776-781.PubMed *Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24, 776-781.PubMed
go back to reference *Noone, C., & Hogan, M. J. (2018). A randomised active-controlled trial to examine the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive control, critical thinking and key thinking dispositions in a university student sample. BMC Psychology, 6, 13.PubMedPubMedCentral *Noone, C., & Hogan, M. J. (2018). A randomised active-controlled trial to examine the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive control, critical thinking and key thinking dispositions in a university student sample. BMC Psychology, 6, 13.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Noone, C., Bunting, B., & Hogan, M. J. (2016). Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 2043.PubMedPubMedCentral *Noone, C., Bunting, B., & Hogan, M. J. (2016). Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 2043.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Ostafin, B. D., Kassman, K. T., & Wessel, I. (2013). Breaking the cycle of desire: Mindfulness and executive control weaken the relation between an implicit measure of alcohol valence and preoccupation with alcohol-related thoughts. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1153-1158.PubMed *Ostafin, B. D., Kassman, K. T., & Wessel, I. (2013). Breaking the cycle of desire: Mindfulness and executive control weaken the relation between an implicit measure of alcohol valence and preoccupation with alcohol-related thoughts. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1153-1158.PubMed
go back to reference Peng, P., & Miller, A. C. (2016). Does attention training work? A selective meta-analysis to explore the effects of attention training and moderators. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 77–87. Peng, P., & Miller, A. C. (2016). Does attention training work? A selective meta-analysis to explore the effects of attention training and moderators. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 77–87.
go back to reference *Prakash, R. S., Hussain, M. A., & Schirda, B. (2015). The role of emotion regulation and cognitive control in the association between mindfulness disposition and stress. Psychology and Aging, 30, 160-171PubMed *Prakash, R. S., Hussain, M. A., & Schirda, B. (2015). The role of emotion regulation and cognitive control in the association between mindfulness disposition and stress. Psychology and Aging, 30, 160-171PubMed
go back to reference *Prätzlich, M., Kossowsky, J., Gaab, J., & Krummenacher, P. (2016). Impact of short-term meditation and expectation on executive brain functions. Behavioural Brain Research, 297, 268-276.PubMed *Prätzlich, M., Kossowsky, J., Gaab, J., & Krummenacher, P. (2016). Impact of short-term meditation and expectation on executive brain functions. Behavioural Brain Research, 297, 268-276.PubMed
go back to reference *Quan, P., Wang, W., Chu, C., & Hou, L. (2018). Seven days of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves attention and coping style. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46, 421-430. *Quan, P., Wang, W., Chu, C., & Hou, L. (2018). Seven days of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves attention and coping style. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46, 421-430.
go back to reference *Rahl, H. A., Lindsay, E. K., Pacilio, L. E., Brown, K. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Brief mindfulness meditation training reduces mind wandering: the critical role of acceptance. Emotion, 17, 224-230.PubMed *Rahl, H. A., Lindsay, E. K., Pacilio, L. E., Brown, K. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Brief mindfulness meditation training reduces mind wandering: the critical role of acceptance. Emotion, 17, 224-230.PubMed
go back to reference *Rodrigues, G. S., & Jaeger, A. (2018). Source memory and cognitive control in Gurdjieff meditators. Mindfulness, 9, 1736-1747. *Rodrigues, G. S., & Jaeger, A. (2018). Source memory and cognitive control in Gurdjieff meditators. Mindfulness, 9, 1736-1747.
go back to reference *Rodriguez Vega, B., Melero-Llorente, J., Bayon Perez, C., Cebolla, S., Mira, J., Valverde, C., & Fernández-Liria, A. (2014). Impact of mindfulness training on attentional control and anger regulation processes for psychotherapists in training. Psychotherapy Research, 24, 202-213.PubMed *Rodriguez Vega, B., Melero-Llorente, J., Bayon Perez, C., Cebolla, S., Mira, J., Valverde, C., & Fernández-Liria, A. (2014). Impact of mindfulness training on attentional control and anger regulation processes for psychotherapists in training. Psychotherapy Research, 24, 202-213.PubMed
go back to reference *Ruocco, A. C., & Wonders, E. (2013). Delineating the contributions of sustained attention and working memory to individual differences in mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 226-230. *Ruocco, A. C., & Wonders, E. (2013). Delineating the contributions of sustained attention and working memory to individual differences in mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 226-230.
go back to reference *Sahdra, B. K., MacLean, K. A., Ferrer, E., Shaver, P. R., Rosenberg, E. L., Jacobs, T. L., Zanesco, A. P., King, B. G., Aichele, S. R., Bridwell, A. A., Mangun, G. R., Lavy, S., Wallace, B. A., & Saron, C. D. (2011). Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Emotion, 11, 299-312.PubMed *Sahdra, B. K., MacLean, K. A., Ferrer, E., Shaver, P. R., Rosenberg, E. L., Jacobs, T. L., Zanesco, A. P., King, B. G., Aichele, S. R., Bridwell, A. A., Mangun, G. R., Lavy, S., Wallace, B. A., & Saron, C. D. (2011). Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Emotion, 11, 299-312.PubMed
go back to reference Santorelli, S. F., Kabat-Zinn, J., Blacker, M., Meleo-Meyer, F., & Koerbel, L. (2017). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) authorized curriculum guide. In Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society (CFM). School: University of Massachusetts Medical. Santorelli, S. F., Kabat-Zinn, J., Blacker, M., Meleo-Meyer, F., & Koerbel, L. (2017). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) authorized curriculum guide. In Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society (CFM). School: University of Massachusetts Medical.
go back to reference *Schmertz, S. K., Anderson, P. L., & Robins, D. L. (2009). The relation between self-report mindfulness and performance on tasks of sustained attention. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 60-66. *Schmertz, S. K., Anderson, P. L., & Robins, D. L. (2009). The relation between self-report mindfulness and performance on tasks of sustained attention. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 60-66.
go back to reference Schwaighofer, M., Fischer, F., & Bühner, M. (2015). Does working memory training transfer? A meta-analysis including training conditions as moderators. Educational Psychologist, 50, 138–166. Schwaighofer, M., Fischer, F., & Bühner, M. (2015). Does working memory training transfer? A meta-analysis including training conditions as moderators. Educational Psychologist, 50, 138–166.
go back to reference Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1139–1171.PubMed Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1139–1171.PubMed
go back to reference *Semple, R. J. (2010). Does mindfulness meditation enhance attention? A randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 1, 121-130. *Semple, R. J. (2010). Does mindfulness meditation enhance attention? A randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 1, 121-130.
go back to reference *Short, M. M., Mazmanian, D., Oinonen, K., & Mushquash, C. J. (2016). Executive function and self-regulation mediate dispositional mindfulness and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 97-103. *Short, M. M., Mazmanian, D., Oinonen, K., & Mushquash, C. J. (2016). Executive function and self-regulation mediate dispositional mindfulness and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 97-103.
go back to reference Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059–1074.PubMed Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059–1074.PubMed
go back to reference Sipe, W. E., & Eisendrath, S. J. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: theory and practice. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 63–69.PubMed Sipe, W. E., & Eisendrath, S. J. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: theory and practice. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 63–69.PubMed
go back to reference Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biol, 5, e138.PubMedPubMedCentral Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biol, 5, e138.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Smilek, D., Carriere, J. S., & Cheyne, J. A. (2010). Failures of sustained attention in life, lab, and brain: ecological validity of the SART. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2564–2570.PubMed Smilek, D., Carriere, J. S., & Cheyne, J. A. (2010). Failures of sustained attention in life, lab, and brain: ecological validity of the SART. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2564–2570.PubMed
go back to reference *Sørensen, L., Osnes, B., Visted, E., Svendsen, J. L., Adolfsdottir, S., Binder, P. E., & Schanche, E. (2018). Dispositional mindfulness and attentional control: the specific association between the mindfulness facets of non-judgment and describing with flexibility of early operating orienting in conflict detection. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2359.PubMedPubMedCentral *Sørensen, L., Osnes, B., Visted, E., Svendsen, J. L., Adolfsdottir, S., Binder, P. E., & Schanche, E. (2018). Dispositional mindfulness and attentional control: the specific association between the mindfulness facets of non-judgment and describing with flexibility of early operating orienting in conflict detection. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2359.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Staub, B., Doignon-Camus, N., Bacon, E., & Bonnefond, A. (2014). Investigating sustained attention ability in the elderly by using two different approaches: inhibiting ongoing behavior versus responding on rare occasions. Acta Psychologica, 146, 51–57.PubMed Staub, B., Doignon-Camus, N., Bacon, E., & Bonnefond, A. (2014). Investigating sustained attention ability in the elderly by using two different approaches: inhibiting ongoing behavior versus responding on rare occasions. Acta Psychologica, 146, 51–57.PubMed
go back to reference Sterne, J. A., Savović, J., Page, M., Elbers, R., Blencowe, N., Boutron, I., Cates, C. J., Cheng, H. Y., Corbett, M. S., Eldridge, S. M., Emberson, J. R., Hernán, M. A., Hopewell, S., Hróbjartsson, A., Junquira, D. R., Jüni, P., Kirkham, J. J., Lasserson, Y., Li, T., et al. (2019). RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 366, l4898.PubMed Sterne, J. A., Savović, J., Page, M., Elbers, R., Blencowe, N., Boutron, I., Cates, C. J., Cheng, H. Y., Corbett, M. S., Eldridge, S. M., Emberson, J. R., Hernán, M. A., Hopewell, S., Hróbjartsson, A., Junquira, D. R., Jüni, P., Kirkham, J. J., Lasserson, Y., Li, T., et al. (2019). RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 366, l4898.PubMed
go back to reference *Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M. K., Fan, M., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 17152-17156. *Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M. K., Fan, M., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 17152-17156.
go back to reference *Teng, S. C., & Lien, Y. W. (2016). What Confucius practiced is good for your mind: examining the effect of a contemplative practice in Confucian tradition on executive functions. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 204-215.PubMed *Teng, S. C., & Lien, Y. W. (2016). What Confucius practiced is good for your mind: examining the effect of a contemplative practice in Confucian tradition on executive functions. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 204-215.PubMed
go back to reference *Teper, R., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 85-92.PubMed *Teper, R., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 85-92.PubMed
go back to reference Travis, F., & Shear, J. (2010). Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 1110–1118.PubMed Travis, F., & Shear, J. (2010). Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 1110–1118.PubMed
go back to reference *Tsai, M. H., & Chou, W. L. (2016). Attentional orienting and executive control are affected by different types of meditation practice. Consciousness and Cognition, 46, 110-126.PubMed *Tsai, M. H., & Chou, W. L. (2016). Attentional orienting and executive control are affected by different types of meditation practice. Consciousness and Cognition, 46, 110-126.PubMed
go back to reference *Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2, 59-70. *Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2, 59-70.
go back to reference *van den Hurk, P. A., Giommi, F., Gielen, S. C., Speckens, A. E., & Barendregt, H. P. (2010). Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1168-1180. *van den Hurk, P. A., Giommi, F., Gielen, S. C., Speckens, A. E., & Barendregt, H. P. (2010). Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1168-1180.
go back to reference van Leeuwen, S., Müller, N. G., & Melloni, L. (2009). Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 593–599.PubMed van Leeuwen, S., Müller, N. G., & Melloni, L. (2009). Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 593–599.PubMed
go back to reference *van Vugt, M. K., & Jha, A. P. (2011). Investigating the impact of mindfulness meditation training on working memory: a mathematical modeling approach. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 344-353. *van Vugt, M. K., & Jha, A. P. (2011). Investigating the impact of mindfulness meditation training on working memory: a mathematical modeling approach. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 344-353.
go back to reference van Vugt, M. K., & Slagter, H. A. (2014). Control over experience? Magnitude of the attentional blink depends on meditative state. Consciousness and Cognition, 23, 32–39.PubMed van Vugt, M. K., & Slagter, H. A. (2014). Control over experience? Magnitude of the attentional blink depends on meditative state. Consciousness and Cognition, 23, 32–39.PubMed
go back to reference Verhaeghen, P. (2011). Aging and executive control: reports of a demise greatly exaggerated. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 174–180.PubMedPubMedCentral Verhaeghen, P. (2011). Aging and executive control: reports of a demise greatly exaggerated. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 174–180.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Verhaeghen, P. (2017). Presence: how mindfulness and meditation shape your brain, mind, and life. New York: Oxford University Press. Verhaeghen, P. (2017). Presence: how mindfulness and meditation shape your brain, mind, and life. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference *Verhoeven, J. E., Vrijsen, J. N., van Oostrom, I., Speckens, A. E., & Rinck, M. (2014). Attention effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in formerly depressed patients. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 5(4), 414-424. *Verhoeven, J. E., Vrijsen, J. N., van Oostrom, I., Speckens, A. E., & Rinck, M. (2014). Attention effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in formerly depressed patients. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 5(4), 414-424.
go back to reference Wasylyshyn, C., Verhaeghen, P., & Sliwinski, M. J. (2011). Aging and task switching: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 26, 15–20.PubMedPubMedCentral Wasylyshyn, C., Verhaeghen, P., & Sliwinski, M. J. (2011). Aging and task switching: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 26, 15–20.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Waszczuk, M. A., Zavos, H. M., Antonova, E., Haworth, C. M., Plomin, R., & Eley, T. C. (2015). A multivariate twin study of trait mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 254–261.PubMedPubMedCentral Waszczuk, M. A., Zavos, H. M., Antonova, E., Haworth, C. M., Plomin, R., & Eley, T. C. (2015). A multivariate twin study of trait mindfulness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 254–261.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Whitmoyer, P., Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Andridge, R., Bredemeier, K., Londeree, A., Kaye, L., & Prakash, R. S. (2020). Mindfulness training and attentional control in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 11, 203-218. *Whitmoyer, P., Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Andridge, R., Bredemeier, K., Londeree, A., Kaye, L., & Prakash, R. S. (2020). Mindfulness training and attentional control in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness, 11, 203-218.
go back to reference *Wittmann, M., Peter, J., Gutina, O., Otten, S., Kohls, N., & Meissner, K. (2014). Individual differences in self-attributed mindfulness levels are related to the experience of time and cognitive self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 41-45. *Wittmann, M., Peter, J., Gutina, O., Otten, S., Kohls, N., & Meissner, K. (2014). Individual differences in self-attributed mindfulness levels are related to the experience of time and cognitive self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 41-45.
go back to reference Zanto, T. P., & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Attention and ageing. In A. C. Nobre & S. Kastner (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of attention (pp. 927–971). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zanto, T. P., & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Attention and ageing. In A. C. Nobre & S. Kastner (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of attention (pp. 927–971). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference *Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 597–605. *Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 597–605.
Metagegevens
Titel
Mindfulness as Attention Training: Meta-Analyses on the Links Between Attention Performance and Mindfulness Interventions, Long-Term Meditation Practice, and Trait Mindfulness
Auteur
Paul Verhaeghen
Publicatiedatum
14-11-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2021
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01532-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2021

Mindfulness 3/2021 Naar de uitgave

MINDFULNESS IN PRACTICE

Realization Is Here and Now