This main aim of this review was to synthesise and critically appraise studies investigating (i) the association between mindfulness and self-esteem, and (ii) the impact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on self-esteem. A further aim was to identify priorities for future research. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases, resulting in 32 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Fifteen studies explored the association between dispositional mindfulness and self-esteem, and 17 studies investigated change in self-esteem following a MBI. Cross-sectional studies found significant positive correlations between dispositional mindfulness and self-esteem, whilst the majority of MBI studies resulted in significant increases in self-esteem. Studies were quality-assessed which highlighted that these findings should be interpreted with caution due to methodological weaknesses. More robust research is needed to corroborate these findings and to investigate the impact of mindfulness as an intervention for low self-esteem.