The current study aimed to investigate the mediating role of cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS) and distress tolerance in the relationship between health-related metacognitions and coronavirus anxiety. The sample of this study consisted of 462 participants (381 female). Participants voluntarily completed self-report questionnaires on each of the variables mentioned above. The results of the structural modeling analysis showed that health-related metacognitions have a significant effect on the mediator variable of distress tolerance and CAS. Also, health-related metacognitions had a direct effect on coronavirus anxiety. Also, based on the results of the bootstrap test, it can be argued that health-related metacognitive beliefs, apart from their direct effect, play an important role in coronavirus anxiety, with CAS acting as a mediator. This study provides insights into the relationships among metacognitive beliefs, coronavirus anxiety, CAS, and distress tolerance. In particular, dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs, including an individual's beliefs about the uncontrollability of disease-related thoughts, are risk factors that could negatively affect mental health, leading to coronavirus anxiety. In addition, the association of dysfunctional beliefs with maladaptive behaviors resulting from the cognitive attentional syndrome is also involved in predicting and causing coronavirus anxiety. Given the insignificant role of emotional distress tolerance in the psychopathology of COVID-19 anxiety, the findings emphasize the importance of cognitive factors in this context.