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16-06-2022

Maternal Worry Socialization and Toddler Inhibited Temperament: Transactional Associations and Stability across Time

Auteurs: Natalee N. Price, Elizabeth J. Kiel

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 11/2022

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Abstract

Caregiver socialization of child emotions has consequences for both typical development and anxiety risk, with caregivers’ non-supportive responses to worry perhaps especially salient to children’s anxiety development. Children, in turn, impact the caregiving environment they receive through their temperament. We investigated transactional relations between maternal non-supportive responses to child worry (mother-reported) and two differently-measured child inhibited temperament indices (i.e., mother-perceived child inhibition to novelty, laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear) in a sample of 136 predominantly non-Hispanic, White mother-toddler dyads. Worry socialization and mother-reported inhibition to novelty were measured at each of three time points (toddler age 2, 3, 4 years), and dysregulated fear was measured at ages 2 and 3. Constructs showed stability across time, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Child inhibited temperament measures positively correlated within time point at ages 2 and 3, and laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear predicted mothers’ later perceptions of their children’s inhibition to novelty. At toddler age 2, mothers of children showing more dysregulated fear reported responding more non-supportively to worry. However, when controlling for one another, more mother-perceived child inhibition to novelty and less laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear at age 3 predicted mothers’ greater non-supportive worry responses at child age 4. There was an indirect effect across time, such that children’s greater laboratory-observed dysregulated fear predicted their mothers’ heightened perceptions of inhibited temperament, which in turn predicted mothers’ greater non-supportive worry responses. Findings lend support to anxiety-relevant construct stability in toddlerhood, as well as child-elicited, rather than parent-elicited, associations across time.
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Voetnoten
1
Of note, we identified vignettes that shared common elements of child-expressed worry, fear, and/or temperamental shyness/behavioral inhibition. To retain linguistic conciseness and congruency to Kiel et al., 2020, we refer to these vignettes as “worry-specific,” though we acknowledge that this labeling may be imperfect and that these situations also likely often incorporate the other aforementioned elements.
 
2
We z-scored dysregulated fear scores and used a 1 SD above the mean cut-off to identify that 15.79% (N = 18 of 114 participants with dysregulated fear data) and 20.16% (N = 25 of 124 participants) of the sample at T1 and T2, respectively, met or exceeded dysregulated fear cutoffs proposed by Buss (2011), suggesting that children with high dysregulated fear scores were well-represented in the sample.
 
3
We thank reviewers throughout our publication process for their contributions to identifying several of the proposed future directions.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Maternal Worry Socialization and Toddler Inhibited Temperament: Transactional Associations and Stability across Time
Auteurs
Natalee N. Price
Elizabeth J. Kiel
Publicatiedatum
16-06-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 11/2022
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-022-00938-w

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