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18-05-2020 | Uitgave 10/2020

Quality of Life Research 10/2020

Mapping the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) onto the Assessment of Quality of Life 8D (AQoL-8D) utility scores

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 10/2020
Max Catchpool, Jay Ramchand, David L. Hare, Melissa Martyn, Ilias Goranitis
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-020-02531-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is a widely used condition-specific measure of quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure. To use information from the MLHFQ in an economic evaluation, the MLHFQ must be mapped onto a preference-based measure of QoL. This study aims to develop a mapping algorithm between the MLHFQ and the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) 8D utility instrument in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).


MLHFQ and AQoL-8D data were collected on 61 Australian adults with idiopathic DCM or other non-hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. Three statistical methods were used as follows: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the robust MM estimator, and the generalised linear models (GLM). Each included a range of explanatory variables. Model performance was assessed using key goodness-of-fit measures, the mean absolute error (MAE), and the root-mean-square error (RMSE).


The MLHFQ summary score and AQoL-8D utility scores were strongly correlated (r =  − 0.83, p < 0.0001) and the two subscales of the MLHFQ were correlated with the eight dimensions of the AQoL-8D. Utility scores were predicted with acceptable precision based on responses to the MLHFQ physical, emotional, social, and other subscales. OLS and GLM performed similarly with MAE and RMSE ranging 0.086–0.106 and 0.114–0.130, respectively.


The mapping algorithm developed in this study allows the derivation of AQoL-8D utilities from MLHFQ scores for use in cost-effectiveness analyses and most importantly, enables the economic evaluation of alternative heart failure therapy options when only the MLHFQ has been collected.

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