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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 4/2016

23-12-2015 | Empirical Research

Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth

Auteurs: Michael T. Baglivio, Kevin T. Wolff, Alex R. Piquero, Shay Bilchik, Katherine Jackowski, Mark A. Greenwald, Nathan Epps

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 4/2016

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Abstract

Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment–delinquency link, the effect of involvement in—and timing of—child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice involvement, whether prior or open cases) was essentially irrelevant with respect to the re-offending of Black youth completing juvenile justice residential programs. The findings indicate the effects of exposure to adverse childhood experiences, and child welfare system and juvenile justice system involvement on re-offending are not uniform across subgroups of youth but that earlier child welfare involvement is more detrimental than concurrent child welfare system involvement when it does matter.
Voetnoten
1
Li et al. (2015) included 480 youth in correctional institutions in Singapore. However, the sample was not disaggregated to examine these youth separate from the remaining 3264 youth offenders on community supervision.
 
2
Concerns have been noted over ACE scores regarding the exclusion of additional exposures such as peer rejection, witnessing violence outside of the family, low socioeconomic status, and low academic achievement (see Finkelhor et al. 2012). Nevertheless, we argue the ACE exposures used in the current study (those of the CDC ACE score) are consistent with developmental theories that highlight the relevance of parental/familial contexts and circumstances.
 
3
52 youth were classified for race/ethnicity as “other” and were removed from the current study. Of the 52 youth, 4 youth (7.7 %) had 1 child welfare placement (none of the youth had more than 1 child welfare placement in the last 5 years). By sex, 16 % of the females classified as “other”, and 6.5 % of the males classified as “other” had a child welfare placement.
 
4
The current study does not evaluate the effectiveness of the services provided to residential youth. As the current study uses the assessment risk factors just prior to release, all treatment effects on risk/needs factors has been taken into account to provide the clearest assessment of the youth prior to the recidivism follow-up period. Future work should examine which specific interventions, in what dosages, best reduce the effects of childhood trauma exposure on subsequent re-offending.
 
5
An anonymous reviewer disagreed with our use of the term dually-adjudicated, holding that youth are not “adjudicated” in the child welfare system. At the same time, many family court systems initiate proceedings through a dependency petition, with the child either being adjudicated dependent or with the petition being dismissed. Therefore, we retain the use of the term “dually-adjudicated”. Dually-adjudicated throughout the manuscript refers to youth with cases open in both the child welfare and juvenile justice system at the same time at some point during the study period (open cases in each system overlapped at some point).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth
Auteurs
Michael T. Baglivio
Kevin T. Wolff
Alex R. Piquero
Shay Bilchik
Katherine Jackowski
Mark A. Greenwald
Nathan Epps
Publicatiedatum
23-12-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 4/2016
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0407-9