Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 3/2021

17-11-2020

Maladaptive Emotional Schemas and Emotional Functioning: Evaluation of an Integrated Model Across Two Independent Samples

Auteurs: Emily R. Edwards, Yingqi Liu, Danny Ruiz, Nicholaus P. Brosowsky, Peggilee Wupperman

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy | Uitgave 3/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Recent advancements in emotion theory propose that emotional schemas—individualized conceptualizations and beliefs about emotions—serve a fundamental function in guiding emotional processes. To critically assess the validity of this suggestion, the current research proposed and evaluated an integrative model of emotional functioning. Two studies were completed using a combination of behavioral (Mirror Tracing Persistence Task), performance-based (Perception of Affect Task), and self-report (Leahy Emotional Schema Scale-II, Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale, Generalized Expectancy for Negative Mood Regulation Scale, UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) measures of maladaptive emotional schemas and emotional functioning. Results supported the model and suggested complex interrelations between maladaptive emotional schemas, emotion-processing deficits, avoidant coping, emotion-regulation ineffectiveness, and behavioral dysregulation, with emotional schemas playing a key role in guiding emotional experience and functioning. Given the centrality of beliefs about emotion and emotional functioning in empirically supported therapies, the proposed model may inform future research on mechanisms of change in these treatments.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
The task was programmed using JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. The 5-point star had an outer radius of 225 pixels and an inner radius of 90 pixels drawn with a line width of 15 pixels.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Adams, Z. W., Kaiser, A. J., Lynam, D. R., Charnigo, R. J., & Milich, R. (2012). Drinking motives as mediators of the impulsivity-substance use relation: Pathways for negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking. Addictive Behaviors, 37(7), 848–855. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Adams, Z. W., Kaiser, A. J., Lynam, D. R., Charnigo, R. J., & Milich, R. (2012). Drinking motives as mediators of the impulsivity-substance use relation: Pathways for negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking. Addictive Behaviors, 37(7), 848–855. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Aldao, A., Sheppes, G., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation flexibility. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39(3), 263–278. CrossRef Aldao, A., Sheppes, G., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation flexibility. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39(3), 263–278. CrossRef
go back to reference Anestis, M. D., Selby, E. A., Fink, E. L., & Joiner, T. E. (2007). The multifaceted role of distress tolerance in dysregulated eating behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(8), 718–726. CrossRefPubMed Anestis, M. D., Selby, E. A., Fink, E. L., & Joiner, T. E. (2007). The multifaceted role of distress tolerance in dysregulated eating behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(8), 718–726. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., Hannan, S. M., & Orcutt, H. K. (2016). Addressing psychometric limitations of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale through item modification. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 298–309. PubMedCrossRef Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., Hannan, S. M., & Orcutt, H. K. (2016). Addressing psychometric limitations of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale through item modification. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 298–309. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Sauer-Zavala, S., Latin, H. M., Ellard, K. K., Bullis, J. R., et al. (2017). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: Therapist guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Sauer-Zavala, S., Latin, H. M., Ellard, K. K., Bullis, J. R., et al. (2017). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: Therapist guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Batmaz, S., & Özdel, K. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale-II. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 16, 23–30. CrossRef Batmaz, S., & Özdel, K. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale-II. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 16, 23–30. CrossRef
go back to reference Bendezú, J. J., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2017). If the coping fits, use it: Preadolescent recent stress exposure differentially predicts post-TSST salivary cortisol recovery. Developmental Psychobiology, 59(7), 848–862. PubMedCrossRef Bendezú, J. J., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2017). If the coping fits, use it: Preadolescent recent stress exposure differentially predicts post-TSST salivary cortisol recovery. Developmental Psychobiology, 59(7), 848–862. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241.
go back to reference Bonanno, G. A., & Burton, C. L. (2013). Regulatory flexibility: An individual differences perspective on coping and emotion regulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 591–612. CrossRefPubMed Bonanno, G. A., & Burton, C. L. (2013). Regulatory flexibility: An individual differences perspective on coping and emotion regulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 591–612. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brockmeyer, T., Holtforth, M. G., Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Doerig, N., Friederich, H. C., et al. (2013). Ambivalence over emotional expression in major depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7), 862–864. CrossRef Brockmeyer, T., Holtforth, M. G., Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Doerig, N., Friederich, H. C., et al. (2013). Ambivalence over emotional expression in major depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7), 862–864. CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, R. C., Overstreet, C., Sheerin, C., Berenz, E., Hawn, S., Pickett, T., et al. (2018). The nomological network of a behavioral distress tolerance task in veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(6), 876–885. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Brown, R. C., Overstreet, C., Sheerin, C., Berenz, E., Hawn, S., Pickett, T., et al. (2018). The nomological network of a behavioral distress tolerance task in veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(6), 876–885. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Carvalho, J. P., & Hopko, D. R. (2011). Behavioral theory of depression: Reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(2), 154–162. PubMedCrossRef Carvalho, J. P., & Hopko, D. R. (2011). Behavioral theory of depression: Reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(2), 154–162. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Catanzaro, S. J., & Mearns, J. (1990). Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation: Initial scale development and implications. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3–4), 546–563. PubMedCrossRef Catanzaro, S. J., & Mearns, J. (1990). Measuring generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation: Initial scale development and implications. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3–4), 546–563. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Corstorphine, E. (2006). Cognitive–emotional–behavioural therapy for the eating disorders: Working with beliefs about emotions. European Eating Disorders Review, 14(6), 448–461. CrossRef Corstorphine, E. (2006). Cognitive–emotional–behavioural therapy for the eating disorders: Working with beliefs about emotions. European Eating Disorders Review, 14(6), 448–461. CrossRef
go back to reference Cyders, M. A., & Coskunpinar, A. (2011). Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: Is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 965–982. PubMedCrossRef Cyders, M. A., & Coskunpinar, A. (2011). Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: Is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 965–982. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Delgado, M. R., Jou, R. L., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2009). Avoiding negative outcomes: tracking the mechanisms of avoidance learning in humans during fear conditioning. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 72–80. CrossRef Delgado, M. R., Jou, R. L., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2009). Avoiding negative outcomes: tracking the mechanisms of avoidance learning in humans during fear conditioning. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 72–80. CrossRef
go back to reference Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Houben, M., Santangelo, P., Kleindienst, N., Tuerlinckx, F., Oravecz, Z., et al. (2015). Unraveling affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: A theoretical model and empirical evidence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(1), 186–198. PubMedCrossRef Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Houben, M., Santangelo, P., Kleindienst, N., Tuerlinckx, F., Oravecz, Z., et al. (2015). Unraveling affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: A theoretical model and empirical evidence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(1), 186–198. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Edwards, E. R., Micek, A., Mottarella, K., & Wupperman, P. (2017). Emotion ideology mediates effects of risk factors on alexithymia development. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 254–277. CrossRef Edwards, E. R., Micek, A., Mottarella, K., & Wupperman, P. (2017). Emotion ideology mediates effects of risk factors on alexithymia development. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 254–277. CrossRef
go back to reference Edwards, E. R., & Wupperman, P. (2017). Emotion regulation mediates effects of alexithymia and emotion differentiation on impulsive aggressive behavior. Deviant Behavior, 38(10), 1160–1171. CrossRef Edwards, E. R., & Wupperman, P. (2017). Emotion regulation mediates effects of alexithymia and emotion differentiation on impulsive aggressive behavior. Deviant Behavior, 38(10), 1160–1171. CrossRef
go back to reference Edwards, E. R., & Wupperman, P. (2019). Research on emotional schemas: A review of findings and challenges. Clinical Psychologist, 23(1), 3–14. CrossRef Edwards, E. R., & Wupperman, P. (2019). Research on emotional schemas: A review of findings and challenges. Clinical Psychologist, 23(1), 3–14. CrossRef
go back to reference Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMedCrossRef Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Eifert, G. H., & Spira, A. P. (2003). Emotional avoidance: An experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(4), 403–411. PubMedCrossRef Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Eifert, G. H., & Spira, A. P. (2003). Emotional avoidance: An experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(4), 403–411. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Stickle, T. R., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2006). Anxiety sensitivity–physical concerns as a moderator of the emotional consequences of emotion suppression during biological challenge: An experimental test using individual growth curve analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(2), 249–272. PubMedCrossRef Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Stickle, T. R., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2006). Anxiety sensitivity–physical concerns as a moderator of the emotional consequences of emotion suppression during biological challenge: An experimental test using individual growth curve analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(2), 249–272. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fledderus, M., Bohlmeijer, E. T., & Pieterse, M. E. (2010). Does experiential avoidance mediate the effects of maladaptive coping styles on psychopathology and mental health? Behavior Modification, 34(6), 503–519. PubMedCrossRef Fledderus, M., Bohlmeijer, E. T., & Pieterse, M. E. (2010). Does experiential avoidance mediate the effects of maladaptive coping styles on psychopathology and mental health? Behavior Modification, 34(6), 503–519. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Frankl, V. (1946). Man’s search for meaning. Vienna: Verlag für Jugend und Volk. Frankl, V. (1946). Man’s search for meaning. Vienna: Verlag für Jugend und Volk.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Masuda, A., Bissett, R., Luoma, J., & Guerrero, L. F. (2004). DBT, FAP, and ACT: How empirically oriented are the new behavior therapy technologies? Behavior Therapy, 35(1), 35–54. CrossRef Hayes, S. C., Masuda, A., Bissett, R., Luoma, J., & Guerrero, L. F. (2004). DBT, FAP, and ACT: How empirically oriented are the new behavior therapy technologies? Behavior Therapy, 35(1), 35–54. CrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Understanding and treating human suffering. New York: Guilford. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Understanding and treating human suffering. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1994). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Altering the verbal support for experiential avoidance. The Behavior Analyst, 17(2), 289–303. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1994). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Altering the verbal support for experiential avoidance. The Behavior Analyst, 17(2), 289–303. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Izard, C. E. (2010). The many meanings/aspects of emotion: Definitions, functions, activation, and regulation. Emotion Review, 2(4), 363–370. CrossRef Izard, C. E. (2010). The many meanings/aspects of emotion: Definitions, functions, activation, and regulation. Emotion Review, 2(4), 363–370. CrossRef
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. PubMedCrossRef Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kahl, K. G., Winter, L., & Schweiger, U. (2012). The third wave of cognitive behavioural therapies. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25(6), 522–528. PubMedCrossRef Kahl, K. G., Winter, L., & Schweiger, U. (2012). The third wave of cognitive behavioural therapies. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25(6), 522–528. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press. Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Klonsky, E. D. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: Prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychological Medicine, 41(9), 1981–1986. PubMedCrossRef Klonsky, E. D. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: Prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychological Medicine, 41(9), 1981–1986. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Koerner, K., & Linehan, M. (2003). Validation principles and strategies. In W. O’Donohue, J. E. Fisher, & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy: Applying empirically-supported techniques in your practice (pp. 456–462). Hoboken: Wiley. Koerner, K., & Linehan, M. (2003). Validation principles and strategies. In W. O’Donohue, J. E. Fisher, & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy: Applying empirically-supported techniques in your practice (pp. 456–462). Hoboken: Wiley.
go back to reference Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(2), 199–213. PubMedCrossRef Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(2), 199–213. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Krause, E. D., Robins, C. I., & Lynch, T. R. (2000). A mediational model relating sociotropy, ambivalence over emotional expression, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(4), 328–335. CrossRef Krause, E. D., Robins, C. I., & Lynch, T. R. (2000). A mediational model relating sociotropy, ambivalence over emotional expression, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(4), 328–335. CrossRef
go back to reference Kret, M. E., & Ploeger, A. (2015). Emotion processing deficits: A liability spectrum providing insight into comorbidity of mental disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 52, 153–171. PubMedCrossRef Kret, M. E., & Ploeger, A. (2015). Emotion processing deficits: A liability spectrum providing insight into comorbidity of mental disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 52, 153–171. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lane, R. D., Lee, S., Reidel, R., Weldon, V., Kaszniak, A., & Schwartz, G. E. (1996). Impaired verbal and nonverbal emotion recognition in alexithymia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(3), 203–210. PubMedCrossRef Lane, R. D., Lee, S., Reidel, R., Weldon, V., Kaszniak, A., & Schwartz, G. E. (1996). Impaired verbal and nonverbal emotion recognition in alexithymia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(3), 203–210. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lane, R. D., Sechrest, L., Riedel, R., Shapiro, D. E., & Kaszniak, A. W. (2000). Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common to alexithymia and the repressive coping style. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(4), 492–501. PubMedCrossRef Lane, R. D., Sechrest, L., Riedel, R., Shapiro, D. E., & Kaszniak, A. W. (2000). Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common to alexithymia and the repressive coping style. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(4), 492–501. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Leahy, R. L. (2002). A model of emotional schemas. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, 177–190. CrossRef Leahy, R. L. (2002). A model of emotional schemas. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, 177–190. CrossRef
go back to reference Leahy, R. L. (2015). Emotional schema therapy. New York: Guilford Publications. Leahy, R. L. (2015). Emotional schema therapy. New York: Guilford Publications.
go back to reference Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D. D., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Processes underlying depression: Risk aversion, emotional schemas, and psychological flexibility. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 362–379. CrossRef Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D. D., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Processes underlying depression: Risk aversion, emotional schemas, and psychological flexibility. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 362–379. CrossRef
go back to reference Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guilford Press. Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Linehan, M. M. (1997). Validation and psychotherapy. In A. C. Bohart & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy (pp. 353–392). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Linehan, M. M. (1997). Validation and psychotherapy. In A. C. Bohart & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy (pp. 353–392). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Lynam, D. R., Smith, G. T., Whiteside, S. P., & Cyders, M. A. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. West Lafayette: Purdue University. Lynam, D. R., Smith, G. T., Whiteside, S. P., & Cyders, M. A. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. West Lafayette: Purdue University.
go back to reference Manser, R., Cooper, M., & Trefusis, J. (2012). Beliefs about emotions as a metacognitive construct: Initial development of a self-report questionnaire measure and preliminary investigation in relation to emotion regulation. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19(3), 235–246. PubMedCrossRef Manser, R., Cooper, M., & Trefusis, J. (2012). Beliefs about emotions as a metacognitive construct: Initial development of a self-report questionnaire measure and preliminary investigation in relation to emotion regulation. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19(3), 235–246. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Matweychuk, W., DiGiuseppe, R., & Gulyayeva, O. (2019). A comparison of REBT with other cognitive behavior therapies. In M. Bernard & W. Dryden (Eds.), Advances in REBT (pp. 47–77). Cham: Springer. CrossRef Matweychuk, W., DiGiuseppe, R., & Gulyayeva, O. (2019). A comparison of REBT with other cognitive behavior therapies. In M. Bernard & W. Dryden (Eds.), Advances in REBT (pp. 47–77). Cham: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference McHugh, R. K., Daughters, S. B., Lejuez, C. W., Murray, H. W., Hearon, B. A., Gorka, S. M., et al. (2011). Shared variance among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(3), 266–275. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef McHugh, R. K., Daughters, S. B., Lejuez, C. W., Murray, H. W., Hearon, B. A., Gorka, S. M., et al. (2011). Shared variance among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(3), 266–275. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Mitmansgruber, H., Beck, T. N., Höfer, S., & Schüßler, G. (2009). When you don’t like what you feel: Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and meta-emotion in emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 448–453. CrossRef Mitmansgruber, H., Beck, T. N., Höfer, S., & Schüßler, G. (2009). When you don’t like what you feel: Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and meta-emotion in emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 448–453. CrossRef
go back to reference Mongrain, M., & Vettese, L. C. (2003). Conflict over emotional expression: Implications for interpersonal communication. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(4), 545–555. PubMedCrossRef Mongrain, M., & Vettese, L. C. (2003). Conflict over emotional expression: Implications for interpersonal communication. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(4), 545–555. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Starr, S., & Wong, A. C. (2007). The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 251–261. PubMedCrossRef Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Starr, S., & Wong, A. C. (2007). The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 251–261. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Müller, J., Bühner, M., Ziegler, M., & Şahin, L. (2008). Are alexithymia, ambivalence over emotional expression, and social insecurity overlapping constructs? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(3), 319–325. PubMedCrossRef Müller, J., Bühner, M., Ziegler, M., & Şahin, L. (2008). Are alexithymia, ambivalence over emotional expression, and social insecurity overlapping constructs? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(3), 319–325. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 128–150. PubMedCrossRef Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 128–150. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Norman, E., & Furnes, B. (2016). The concept of “metaemotion”: What is there to learn from research on metacognition? Emotion Review, 8(2), 187–193. PubMedCrossRef Norman, E., & Furnes, B. (2016). The concept of “metaemotion”: What is there to learn from research on metacognition? Emotion Review, 8(2), 187–193. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Olatunji, B. O., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2009). Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 974–999. PubMedCrossRef Olatunji, B. O., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2009). Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 974–999. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ottenbreit, N. D., & Dobson, K. S. (2004). Avoidance and depression: The construction of the cognitive-behavioral avoidance scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(3), 293–313. PubMedCrossRef Ottenbreit, N. D., & Dobson, K. S. (2004). Avoidance and depression: The construction of the cognitive-behavioral avoidance scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(3), 293–313. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). New York: Guilford Press. Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Pearson, C. M., Combs, J. L., Zapolski, T. C., & Smith, G. T. (2012). A longitudinal transactional risk model for early eating disorder onset. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(3), 707–718. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Pearson, C. M., Combs, J. L., Zapolski, T. C., & Smith, G. T. (2012). A longitudinal transactional risk model for early eating disorder onset. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(3), 707–718. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Racine, S. E., Keel, P. K., Burt, S. A., Sisk, C. L., Neale, M., Boker, S., et al. (2013). Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: Etiologic associations and the role of negative affect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 433–444. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Racine, S. E., Keel, P. K., Burt, S. A., Sisk, C. L., Neale, M., Boker, S., et al. (2013). Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: Etiologic associations and the role of negative affect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 433–444. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Rau, J. C. (1988). A normative study of the perception of affect task.  Thesis. Rau, J. C. (1988). A normative study of the perception of affect task.  Thesis.
go back to reference Rau, J. C. (1992). Perception of verbal and nonverbal affective stimuli in complex partial seizure disorder.  Dissertation. Rau, J. C. (1992). Perception of verbal and nonverbal affective stimuli in complex partial seizure disorder.  Dissertation.
go back to reference Rosenthal, M. Z., Neacsiu, A. D., Geiger, P. J., Fang, C., Ahn, R., & Larrauri, J. (2016). Emotional reactivity to personally-relevant and standardized sounds in borderline personality disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(3), 314–327. CrossRef Rosenthal, M. Z., Neacsiu, A. D., Geiger, P. J., Fang, C., Ahn, R., & Larrauri, J. (2016). Emotional reactivity to personally-relevant and standardized sounds in borderline personality disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(3), 314–327. CrossRef
go back to reference Sánchez, F. M., Larrieux, M. L. B., Rovira, D. P., & Ball, D. C. (2013). Beliefs about the effects of social sharing of emotion in alexithymia. Psicothema, 25(2), 179–184. Sánchez, F. M., Larrieux, M. L. B., Rovira, D. P., & Ball, D. C. (2013). Beliefs about the effects of social sharing of emotion in alexithymia. Psicothema, 25(2), 179–184.
go back to reference Selby, E. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2009). Cascades of emotion: The emergence of borderline personality disorder from emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Review of General Psychology, 13(3), 219–229. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Selby, E. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2009). Cascades of emotion: The emergence of borderline personality disorder from emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Review of General Psychology, 13(3), 219–229. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Simpson, T., Jakupcak, M., & Luterek, J. A. (2006). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences among patients with substance use disorders and PTSD: The centrality of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 481–491. PubMedCrossRef Simpson, T., Jakupcak, M., & Luterek, J. A. (2006). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences among patients with substance use disorders and PTSD: The centrality of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 481–491. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spokas, M., Luterek, J. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (2009). Social anxiety and emotional suppression: The mediating role of beliefs. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40(2), 283–291. PubMedCrossRef Spokas, M., Luterek, J. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (2009). Social anxiety and emotional suppression: The mediating role of beliefs. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40(2), 283–291. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stewart, S. H., Zvolensky, M. J., & Eifert, G. H. (2001). Negative-reinforcement drinking motives mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and increased drinking behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(2), 157–171. CrossRef Stewart, S. H., Zvolensky, M. J., & Eifert, G. H. (2001). Negative-reinforcement drinking motives mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and increased drinking behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(2), 157–171. CrossRef
go back to reference Stewart, S. H., Zvolensky, M. J., & Eifert, G. H. (2002). The relations of anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, and alexithymic coping to young adults’ motivations for drinking. Behavior Modification, 26(2), 274–296. PubMedCrossRef Stewart, S. H., Zvolensky, M. J., & Eifert, G. H. (2002). The relations of anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, and alexithymic coping to young adults’ motivations for drinking. Behavior Modification, 26(2), 274–296. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Strong, D. R., Lejuez, C. W., Daughters, S., Marinello, M., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). The computerized mirror tracing task, version 1.  Unpublished manual. Strong, D. R., Lejuez, C. W., Daughters, S., Marinello, M., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). The computerized mirror tracing task, version 1.  Unpublished manual.
go back to reference Tirch, D. D., Leahy, R. L., Silberstein, L. R., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Emotional schemas, psychological flexibility, and anxiety: The role of flexible response patterns to anxious arousal. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 380–391. CrossRef Tirch, D. D., Leahy, R. L., Silberstein, L. R., & Melwani, P. S. (2012). Emotional schemas, psychological flexibility, and anxiety: The role of flexible response patterns to anxious arousal. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(4), 380–391. CrossRef
go back to reference Totterdell, P., & Leach, D. (2001). Negative mood regulation expectancies and sports performance: An investigation involving professional cricketers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2(4), 249–265. CrossRef Totterdell, P., & Leach, D. (2001). Negative mood regulation expectancies and sports performance: An investigation involving professional cricketers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2(4), 249–265. CrossRef
go back to reference Valentine, S. E., Bankoff, S. M., Poulin, R. M., Reidler, E. B., & Pantalone, D. W. (2015). The use of dialectical behavior therapy skills training as stand-alone treatment: A systematic review of the treatment outcome literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 1–20. PubMedCrossRef Valentine, S. E., Bankoff, S. M., Poulin, R. M., Reidler, E. B., & Pantalone, D. W. (2015). The use of dialectical behavior therapy skills training as stand-alone treatment: A systematic review of the treatment outcome literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 1–20. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wedig, M. M., & Nock, M. K. (2010). The functional assessment of maladaptive behaviors: A preliminary evaluation of binge eating and purging among women. Psychiatry Research, 178(3), 518–524. PubMedCrossRef Wedig, M. M., & Nock, M. K. (2010). The functional assessment of maladaptive behaviors: A preliminary evaluation of binge eating and purging among women. Psychiatry Research, 178(3), 518–524. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 301. CrossRef Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 301. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Maladaptive Emotional Schemas and Emotional Functioning: Evaluation of an Integrated Model Across Two Independent Samples
Auteurs
Emily R. Edwards
Yingqi Liu
Danny Ruiz
Nicholaus P. Brosowsky
Peggilee Wupperman
Publicatiedatum
17-11-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy / Uitgave 3/2021
Print ISSN: 0894-9085
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6563
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-020-00379-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2021

Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 3/2021 Naar de uitgave