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20-05-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 8/2020

Mindfulness 8/2020

Longitudinal Bidirectional Associations Between Dispositional Mindfulness, Maladaptive Schemas, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

Mindfulness > Uitgave 8/2020
Joana Gómez-Odriozola, Esther Calvete
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Grounded on transactional models of psychopathology, the aim of the present study was to examine whether there are bidirectional long-term predictive associations between mindfulness facets, maladaptive schemas, and depressive symptoms during adolescence.


A sample of 855 students (417 girls, Mage = 14.60, SD = 1.00) was assessed at three time points separated by 6 months. They completed the Short Form of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the disconnection/rejection domain of Young Schema Questionnaire, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.


Depressive symptoms predicted schemas and lower describe, non-reacting, and non-judging. Schemas predicted higher depression, observe, and non-reacting and lower describe, acting with awareness, and non-judging. Describe and acting with awareness predicted reductions of schemas and depressive symptoms, respectively. These bidirectional relationships were mostly similar for a high depression group and a low depression group. Subsequent bootstrapping analyses supported significant mediating effects.


These findings support the use of transactional models and the inclusion of bidirectional relationships in explanatory models of psychopathology. Furthermore, depressive symptoms and cognitive vulnerabilities can worsen mindfulness facets in adolescents.

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