Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Early executive functioning is an important predictor for future development of children’s cognitive skills and behavioral outcomes. Parenting behavior has proven to be a key environmental determinant of child executive functioning. However, the association of parental affect and cognitions directed to the child with child executive functioning has been understudied. Therefore, in the present study we examine the associations between parental bonding (i.e., the affective tie from parent to child), parenting stress, and child executive functioning. At 26 weeks of pregnancy, and at 6 months and 24 months postpartum the quality of the maternal (N = 335) and paternal (N = 261) bond with the infant was assessed. At 24 months, postnatal parenting stress and child executive functioning were measured by means of parent-report questionnaires. Results indicated that for both mothers and fathers feelings of bonding negatively predicted experienced parenting stress over time. In addition, for both parents a negative indirect effect of bonding on child executive functioning problems was found via experienced parenting stress. These findings indicate the importance of monitoring parents who experience a low level and quality of early parent-child bonding, as this makes them vulnerable to parenting stress, consequently putting their children at risk for developing executive functioning problems.
Abidin, R. R. (1983). Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Anderson, V., Anderson, P. J., Jacobs, R., & Smith, M. S. (2008). Development and assessment of executive function: From preschool to adolescence. In V. Anderson, R. Jacobs, & P. J. Anderson (Eds.), Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective (pp. 123–154). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Blair, C., Granger, D. A., Willoughby, M., Mills‐Koonce, R., Cox, M., Greenberg, M. T., & Fortunato, C. K. (2011). Salivary cortisol mediates effects of poverty and parenting on executive functions in early childhood. Child Development, 82, 1970–1984. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01643.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Bollen, K. A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 17, 303–316. CrossRef
De Brock, A., Vermulst, A., Gerris, J., & Abidin, R. (1992). NOSI. nijmeegse ouderlijke stress index. handleiding.[Dutch version of Parenting Stress Index]. Amsterdam: Pearson.
Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. In D. T. Stuss, & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function (pp. 466–503). London: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three‐wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76, 1055–1071. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00897.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Gioia, G. A., Espy, K. A., & Isquith, P. K. (2003). BRIEF-P: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Kok, R., Thijssen, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Jaddoe, V. W., Verhulst, F. C., White, T., et al. (2015). Normal variation in early parental sensitivity predicts child structural brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 824–831. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.07.009. CrossRefPubMed
Lucassen, N., Kok, R., Bakermans‐Kranenburg, M. J., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., et al. (2015). Executive functions in early childhood: The role of maternal and paternal parenting practices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 489–505. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12112. CrossRefPubMed
Maas, A. J. B. M., de Cock, E. S. A., Vreeswijk, C. M. J. M., Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., & van Bakel, H. J. A. (2016). A longitudinal study on the maternal–fetal relationship and postnatal maternal sensitivity. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 34, 110–121. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2015.1112880. CrossRef
Maas, A. J. B. M., Vreeswijk, C. M. J. M., de Cock, E. S. A., Rijk, C. H. A. M., & van Bakel, H. J. A. (2012). “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk) factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12(1), 46 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-46. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Müller, M. E. (1994). A questionnaire to measure mother-to-infant attachment. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 2, 129–141. PubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus User’s Guide. 7th Edition Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Ramchandani, P. G., Domoney, J., Sethna, V., Psychogiou, L., Vlachos, H., & Murray, L. (2013). Do early father–infant interactions predict the onset of externalising behaviours in young children? Findings from a longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 56–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02583.x=. CrossRefPubMed
Sulik, M. J., Blair, C., Mills‐Koonce, R., Berry, D., & Greenberg, M. (2015). Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: Longitudinal mediation through children’s executive function. Child Development, 86, 1588–1603. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12386. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. In G. Cole (Ed.), Readings on the development of children (pp. 34–41). New York,NY: Scientific American Books. Vol. 23.
- Longitudinal Associations Between Parental Bonding, Parenting Stress, and Executive Functioning in Toddlerhood
Evi S. A. de Cock
Theo A. Klimstra
A. Janneke B. M. Maas
Charlotte M. J. M. Vreeswijk
Wim H. J. Meeus
Hedwig J. A. van Bakel
- Springer US