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W. Vlastra and M. Piek contributed equally as first authors to this manuscript.
Coronary artery spasm may be the underlying mechanism in up to 10% of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Asian individuals exhibit a 3-times greater incidence of spasm than Caucasians; this is likely due to different types of mechanisms. Consequently, solid data is limited about the long-term prognosis in Caucasian patients presenting with ACS and/or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by coronary spasm.
Between 2002 and 2015, thirty Caucasian patients with coronary artery spasm presenting with ACS (N = 29) and/or OHCA (N = 11) were enrolled in this prospective registry. Follow-up, consisting of regular outpatient visits, was conducted with a mean follow-up period of 7.5 ± 3.3 years. Outcomes included presence of stable angina pectoris, recurrence of ACS, occurrence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and death.
The majority of patients (60%) remained asymptomatic during the entire follow-up period. At the end of the follow-up period only 3 patients still experienced stable angina (10%). Only 2 patients (7%) had a recurrent cardiac event, in which the ICD provided appropriate shock therapy. Half of the patients treated with stenting (N = 6), required re-interventions.
Coronary spasm with ACS and/or OHCA in a Caucasian patient cohort has a relatively benign prognosis in the majority of patients in long-term follow-up, if treated appropriately with medical therapy. Both the role of ICD in OHCA secondary to coronary spasm, and the efficacy of stenting to treat vasospastic angina, warrant further study in large-sized prospective clinical trials.
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- Long-term outcomes of a Caucasian cohort presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by coronary spasm
M. A. van Lavieren
M. E. J. C. Hassell
B. E. Claessen
G. W. Wijntjens
T. P. van de Hoef
K. D Sjauw
M. A. Beijk
J. J. Piek
- Bohn Stafleu van Loghum