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Stability of the ankle and hindfoot is assured by muscles and ligaments, which must be considered together. Normal synergic control is through the proprioceptive Golgi organs in the tendons, which control the associated reflex muscle contraction. The mechanism is complex. It seems clear, however, that when the mechanical force is too sudden for reflex protective stimulation of the muscles, ligaments are likely to be stretched or torn.
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- Ligamentous Injuries of Ankle and Hindfoot
M.D. Bernard Regnauld
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg