Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development 4/2022

30-03-2021 | Original Article

Latent Class Analysis Reveals Distinct Groups Based on Executive Function and Socioemotional Traits, Developmental Conditions, and Stuttering: A Population Study

Auteurs: Sara Ashley Smith, Ai Leen Choo, Matthew E. Foster

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 4/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

A growing body of research has reported associations between weaker Executive Functions (EF), the set capacities that are needed to manage and allocate one’s cognitive resources during cognitively challenging activities and various neurodevelopmental conditions, including stuttering. The majority of this research has been based on variable-centered approaches, which have the potential to obscure within-population heterogeneity. Person-centered analyses are essential to understanding multifactorial disorders where relationships between indicators have been elusive, such as stuttering. The current study addressed gaps in the literature by using latent class analysis (LCA), a person-centered approach, to identify homogenous subgroups within the National Health Interview Survey (2004–2018) publicly available data set. Using this exploratory approach, we examined the hypothesis that there exist distinct classes (or subgroups) of children based on parent reports of EF, Socioemotional (SE) traits, developmental atypicality, and stuttering. Our analyses revealed distinct subgroups with substantially different likelihoods of parent-reported stuttering behaviors and developmental atypicality. For children with both EF and SE difficulties, the likelihood of parental report of stuttering and atypical development was even higher, in fact this likelihood (of stuttering and not-typically developing) was highest among all subgroups. In contrast, children without difficulties were the least likely to be reported with stuttering or not-typically developing. Our findings are consistent with theoretical frameworks for stuttering, which cite EF as a crucial component in the disorder. Additionally, our findings suggest within-population heterogeneity among children with EF difficulties and, specifically, EF and SE heterogeneity among children who stutter.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Preliminary analyses suggested that participant’s sex was minimally associated with parent report of stuttering (rSpearman = -0.054). In addition, LCAs with participant sex included as an indicator evidenced convergence issues and fit more poorly than the corresponding LCAs without sex (see Appendix A). Participant’s sex was therefore not included in our final LCAs.
 
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Carlson SM, Wang TS (2007) Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cogn Dev 22(4):489–510 CrossRef Carlson SM, Wang TS (2007) Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cogn Dev 22(4):489–510 CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Carlson SM (2005) Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Dev Neuropsychol 28(2):595–616 PubMedCrossRef Carlson SM (2005) Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Dev Neuropsychol 28(2):595–616 PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Corbett BA, Constantine LJ, Hendren R, Rocke D, Ozonoff S (2009) Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Psychiatry Res 166(2–3):210–222 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Corbett BA, Constantine LJ, Hendren R, Rocke D, Ozonoff S (2009) Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Psychiatry Res 166(2–3):210–222 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Ofoe LC, Anderson JD, Ntourou K (2018) Short-term memory, inhibition, and attention in developmental stuttering: a meta-analysis. J Speech Lang Heart Res 61(7):1626–1648 CrossRef Ofoe LC, Anderson JD, Ntourou K (2018) Short-term memory, inhibition, and attention in developmental stuttering: a meta-analysis. J Speech Lang Heart Res 61(7):1626–1648 CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Ozonoff S, Jensen J (1999) Brief report: specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 29(2):171–177 PubMedCrossRef Ozonoff S, Jensen J (1999) Brief report: specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 29(2):171–177 PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Walden TA, Frankel CB, Buhr AP, Johnson KN, Conture EG, Karrass JM (2012) Dual diathesis-stressor model of emotional and linguistic contributions to developmental stuttering. J Abnorm Child Psychol 40(4):633–644 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Walden TA, Frankel CB, Buhr AP, Johnson KN, Conture EG, Karrass JM (2012) Dual diathesis-stressor model of emotional and linguistic contributions to developmental stuttering. J Abnorm Child Psychol 40(4):633–644 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Postma A, Kolk H (1993) The covert repair hypothesis prearticulatory repair processes in normal and stuttered disfluencies. J Speech Lang Hear Res 36(3):472–487 CrossRef Postma A, Kolk H (1993) The covert repair hypothesis prearticulatory repair processes in normal and stuttered disfluencies. J Speech Lang Hear Res 36(3):472–487 CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Vasic N, Wijnen F (2005) Stuttering as a monitoring deficit. In: Hartsuiker RJ, Bastiaanse R, Postma A, Wijnen F (eds) Phonological encoding and monitoring in normal and pathological speech. Psychology Press, Hove, pp 226–247 Vasic N, Wijnen F (2005) Stuttering as a monitoring deficit. In: Hartsuiker RJ, Bastiaanse R, Postma A, Wijnen F (eds) Phonological encoding and monitoring in normal and pathological speech. Psychology Press, Hove, pp 226–247
11.
go back to reference Rhoades BL, Greenberg MT, Lanza ST, Blair C (2011) Demographic and familial predictors of early executive function development: contribution of a person-centered perspective. J Exp Child Psychol 108(3):638–662 PubMedCrossRef Rhoades BL, Greenberg MT, Lanza ST, Blair C (2011) Demographic and familial predictors of early executive function development: contribution of a person-centered perspective. J Exp Child Psychol 108(3):638–662 PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Laursen B, Hoff E (2006) Person-centered and variable-centered approaches to longitudinal data. Merrill-Palmer Q 52:377–389 CrossRef Laursen B, Hoff E (2006) Person-centered and variable-centered approaches to longitudinal data. Merrill-Palmer Q 52:377–389 CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Nylund-Gibson K, Masyn KE (2016) Covariates and mixture modeling: results of a simulation study exploring the impact of misspecified effects on class enumeration. Struct Equ Model 23(6):782–797 CrossRef Nylund-Gibson K, Masyn KE (2016) Covariates and mixture modeling: results of a simulation study exploring the impact of misspecified effects on class enumeration. Struct Equ Model 23(6):782–797 CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Stern HS, Arcus D, Kagan J, Rubin DB, Snidman N (1995) Using mixture models in temperament research. Int J Behav Dev 18:407–423 CrossRef Stern HS, Arcus D, Kagan J, Rubin DB, Snidman N (1995) Using mixture models in temperament research. Int J Behav Dev 18:407–423 CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Lanza ST, Flaherty BP, Collins LM (2003) Latent class and latent transition models. In: Schinka JA, Velicer WF (eds) Handbook of psychology, vol 2. Research methods in psychology. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 663–685 Lanza ST, Flaherty BP, Collins LM (2003) Latent class and latent transition models. In: Schinka JA, Velicer WF (eds) Handbook of psychology, vol 2. Research methods in psychology. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 663–685
17.
go back to reference Cloitre M, Garvert DW, Weiss B, Carlson EB, Bryant RA (2014) Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and borderline personality disorder: a latent class analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol 5:1–10 CrossRef Cloitre M, Garvert DW, Weiss B, Carlson EB, Bryant RA (2014) Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and borderline personality disorder: a latent class analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol 5:1–10 CrossRef
18.
go back to reference Jang Y, Park NS, Chiriboga DA, Kim MT (2017) Latent profiles of acculturation and their implications for health: a study with Asian Americans in central Texas. Asian Am J Psychol 8(3):200–208 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Jang Y, Park NS, Chiriboga DA, Kim MT (2017) Latent profiles of acculturation and their implications for health: a study with Asian Americans in central Texas. Asian Am J Psychol 8(3):200–208 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Ajdacic-Gross V, Bechtiger L, Rodgers S, Müller M, Kawohl W, von Känel R, Strippoli MPF (2018) Subtypes of stuttering determined by latent class analysis in two Swiss epidemiological surveys. PLoS ONE 13(8):e0198450 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ajdacic-Gross V, Bechtiger L, Rodgers S, Müller M, Kawohl W, von Känel R, Strippoli MPF (2018) Subtypes of stuttering determined by latent class analysis in two Swiss epidemiological surveys. PLoS ONE 13(8):e0198450 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Gathercole SE, Pickering SJ, Ambridge B, Wearing H (2004) The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Dev Psychol 40(2):177 PubMedCrossRef Gathercole SE, Pickering SJ, Ambridge B, Wearing H (2004) The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Dev Psychol 40(2):177 PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Jacob R, Parkinson J (2015) The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: a review. Rev Educ Res 85(4):512–552 CrossRef Jacob R, Parkinson J (2015) The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: a review. Rev Educ Res 85(4):512–552 CrossRef
22.
go back to reference Müller U, Jacques S, Brocki K, Zelazo PD (2009) The executive functions of language in preschool children. In: Winsler A, Fernyhough C, Montero I (eds) Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 53–68 CrossRef Müller U, Jacques S, Brocki K, Zelazo PD (2009) The executive functions of language in preschool children. In: Winsler A, Fernyhough C, Montero I (eds) Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 53–68 CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Mulder H, Verhagen J, Van der Ven SH, Slot PL, Leseman PP (2017) Early executive function at age two predicts emergent mathematics and literacy at age five. Front Psychol 8:1706 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mulder H, Verhagen J, Van der Ven SH, Slot PL, Leseman PP (2017) Early executive function at age two predicts emergent mathematics and literacy at age five. Front Psychol 8:1706 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Bull R, Lee K (2014) Executive functioning and mathematics achievement. Child Dev Perspect 8(1):36–41 CrossRef Bull R, Lee K (2014) Executive functioning and mathematics achievement. Child Dev Perspect 8(1):36–41 CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Yates T, Ostrosky MM, Cheatham GA, Fettig A, Shaffer L, Santos RM (2008) Research synthesis on screening and assessing social-emotional competence. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Yates T, Ostrosky MM, Cheatham GA, Fettig A, Shaffer L, Santos RM (2008) Research synthesis on screening and assessing social-emotional competence. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning
26.
go back to reference Ferrier DE, Bassett HH, Denham SA (2014) Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage. Front Psychol 5:487 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ferrier DE, Bassett HH, Denham SA (2014) Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage. Front Psychol 5:487 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Kopp CB (1989) Regulation of distress and negative emotions: a developmental view. Dev Psychol 25(3):343 CrossRef Kopp CB (1989) Regulation of distress and negative emotions: a developmental view. Dev Psychol 25(3):343 CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Hughes C, Ensor R (2011) Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. J Exp Child Psychol 108(3):663–676 PubMedCrossRef Hughes C, Ensor R (2011) Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. J Exp Child Psychol 108(3):663–676 PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Rhoades BL, Greenberg MT, Domitrovich CE (2009) The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers’ social–emotional competence. J Appl Dev Psychol 30(3):310–320 CrossRef Rhoades BL, Greenberg MT, Domitrovich CE (2009) The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers’ social–emotional competence. J Appl Dev Psychol 30(3):310–320 CrossRef
30.
go back to reference Spinrad TL, Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Fabes RA, Valiente C, Shepard SA, Guthrie IK (2006) Relation of emotion-related regulation to children’s social competence: a longitudinal study. Emotion 6(3):498 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Spinrad TL, Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Fabes RA, Valiente C, Shepard SA, Guthrie IK (2006) Relation of emotion-related regulation to children’s social competence: a longitudinal study. Emotion 6(3):498 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Fleming CB, Harachi TW, Cortes RC, Abbott RD, Catalano RF (2004) Level and change in reading scores and attention problems during elementary school as predictors of problem behavior in middle school. J Emot Behav Disord 12(3):130–144 CrossRef Fleming CB, Harachi TW, Cortes RC, Abbott RD, Catalano RF (2004) Level and change in reading scores and attention problems during elementary school as predictors of problem behavior in middle school. J Emot Behav Disord 12(3):130–144 CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Raaijmakers MA, Smidts DP, Sergeant JA, Maassen GH, Posthumus JA, Van Engeland H, Matthys W (2008) Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: impairments in inhibitory control. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36(7):1097 PubMedCrossRef Raaijmakers MA, Smidts DP, Sergeant JA, Maassen GH, Posthumus JA, Van Engeland H, Matthys W (2008) Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: impairments in inhibitory control. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36(7):1097 PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Vuontela V, Carlson S, Troberg AM, Fontell T, Simola P, Saarinen S, Aronen ET (2013) Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(1):105–122 PubMedCrossRef Vuontela V, Carlson S, Troberg AM, Fontell T, Simola P, Saarinen S, Aronen ET (2013) Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(1):105–122 PubMedCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Yairi E, Ambrose NG, Niermann R (1993) The early months of stuttering: a developmental study. J Speech Lang Hear Res 36(3):521–528 CrossRef Yairi E, Ambrose NG, Niermann R (1993) The early months of stuttering: a developmental study. J Speech Lang Hear Res 36(3):521–528 CrossRef
35.
go back to reference Bloodstein O, Bernstein-Ratner N (2008) A handbook on stuttering, 6th edn. Thomson-Delmar, New York Bloodstein O, Bernstein-Ratner N (2008) A handbook on stuttering, 6th edn. Thomson-Delmar, New York
36.
go back to reference Yairi E, Ambrose NG (1999) Early childhood stuttering I: persistency and recovery rates. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42(5):1097–1112 PubMedCrossRef Yairi E, Ambrose NG (1999) Early childhood stuttering I: persistency and recovery rates. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42(5):1097–1112 PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Yairi E, Ambrose NG, Paden EP, Throneburg RN (1996) Predictive factors of persistence and recovery: pathways of childhood stuttering. J Commun Disord 29(1):51–77 PubMedCrossRef Yairi E, Ambrose NG, Paden EP, Throneburg RN (1996) Predictive factors of persistence and recovery: pathways of childhood stuttering. J Commun Disord 29(1):51–77 PubMedCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Blood GW, Blood IM (2007) Preliminary study of self-reported experience of physical aggression and bullying of boys who stutter: relation to increased anxiety. Percept Mot Skills 104(3_suppl):1060–1066 PubMedCrossRef Blood GW, Blood IM (2007) Preliminary study of self-reported experience of physical aggression and bullying of boys who stutter: relation to increased anxiety. Percept Mot Skills 104(3_suppl):1060–1066 PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Blood GW, Ridenour VJ Jr, Qualls CD, Hammer CS (2003) Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter. J Commun Disord 36(6):427–448 PubMedCrossRef Blood GW, Ridenour VJ Jr, Qualls CD, Hammer CS (2003) Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter. J Commun Disord 36(6):427–448 PubMedCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Langevin M, Packman A, Onslow M (2009) Peer responses to stuttering in the preschool setting. Am J Speech-Lang Pathol 18:264 PubMedCrossRef Langevin M, Packman A, Onslow M (2009) Peer responses to stuttering in the preschool setting. Am J Speech-Lang Pathol 18:264 PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Blood GW, Blood IM, Tramontana GM, Sylvia AJ, Boyle MP, Motzko GR (2011) Self-reported experience of bullying of students who stutter: relations with life satisfaction, life orientation, and self-esteem. Percept Mot Skills 113(2):353–364 PubMedCrossRef Blood GW, Blood IM, Tramontana GM, Sylvia AJ, Boyle MP, Motzko GR (2011) Self-reported experience of bullying of students who stutter: relations with life satisfaction, life orientation, and self-esteem. Percept Mot Skills 113(2):353–364 PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Blumgart E, Tran Y, Craig A (2010) An investigation into the personal financial costs associated with stuttering. J FluenDisord 35(3):203–215 Blumgart E, Tran Y, Craig A (2010) An investigation into the personal financial costs associated with stuttering. J FluenDisord 35(3):203–215
43.
go back to reference Craig A, Blumgart E, Tran Y (2009) The impact of stuttering on the quality of life in adults who stutter. J FluenDisord 34(2):61–71 Craig A, Blumgart E, Tran Y (2009) The impact of stuttering on the quality of life in adults who stutter. J FluenDisord 34(2):61–71
44.
go back to reference Davis S, Howell P, Cooke F (2002) Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non-stuttering classmates. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43(7):939–947 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Davis S, Howell P, Cooke F (2002) Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non-stuttering classmates. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43(7):939–947 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Iverach L, Jones M, McLellan LF, Lyneham HJ, Menzies RG, Onslow M, Rapee RM (2016) Prevalence of anxiety disorders among children who stutter. J FluenDisord 49:13–28 Iverach L, Jones M, McLellan LF, Lyneham HJ, Menzies RG, Onslow M, Rapee RM (2016) Prevalence of anxiety disorders among children who stutter. J FluenDisord 49:13–28
46.
go back to reference Klein JF, Hood SB (2004) The impact of stuttering on employment opportunities and job performance. J Fluency Disord 29(4):255–273 PubMedCrossRef Klein JF, Hood SB (2004) The impact of stuttering on employment opportunities and job performance. J Fluency Disord 29(4):255–273 PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Messenger M, Onslow M, Packman A, Menzies R (2004) Social anxiety in stuttering: measuring negative social expectancies. J FluenDisord 29(3):201–212 Messenger M, Onslow M, Packman A, Menzies R (2004) Social anxiety in stuttering: measuring negative social expectancies. J FluenDisord 29(3):201–212
48.
go back to reference Rees DI, Sabia JJ (2014) The kid’s speech: The effect of stuttering on human capital acquisition. Econ Educ Rev 38:76–88 CrossRef Rees DI, Sabia JJ (2014) The kid’s speech: The effect of stuttering on human capital acquisition. Econ Educ Rev 38:76–88 CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Koushik S, Shenker R, Onslow M (2009) Follow-up of 6–10-year-old stuttering children after Lidcombe program treatment: a phase I trial. J FluenDisord 34(4):279–290 Koushik S, Shenker R, Onslow M (2009) Follow-up of 6–10-year-old stuttering children after Lidcombe program treatment: a phase I trial. J FluenDisord 34(4):279–290
50.
go back to reference Jansson-Verkasalo E, Eggers K, Aro K, De Nil LF, Van den Bergh BR (2012) Auditory attention shifting in children who stutter. In: Proceedings of the European Symposium on Fluency Disorders Jansson-Verkasalo E, Eggers K, Aro K, De Nil LF, Van den Bergh BR (2012) Auditory attention shifting in children who stutter. In: Proceedings of the European Symposium on Fluency Disorders
51.
go back to reference Daneman M (1991) Working memory as a predictor of verbal fluency. J Psychol Res 20(6):445–464 CrossRef Daneman M (1991) Working memory as a predictor of verbal fluency. J Psychol Res 20(6):445–464 CrossRef
52.
go back to reference Engelhardt PE, McMullon ME, Corley M (2019) Individual differences in the production of disfluency: a latent variable analysis of memory ability and verbal intelligence. Q J ExpPsychol 72(5):1084–1101 Engelhardt PE, McMullon ME, Corley M (2019) Individual differences in the production of disfluency: a latent variable analysis of memory ability and verbal intelligence. Q J ExpPsychol 72(5):1084–1101
53.
go back to reference Spencer C, Weber-Fox C (2014) Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. J FluenDisord 41:32–46 Spencer C, Weber-Fox C (2014) Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. J FluenDisord 41:32–46
54.
go back to reference Nejati V, Pouretemad HR, Bahrami H (2013) Attention training in rehabilitation of children with developmental stuttering. NeuroRehabilitation 32(2):297–303 PubMedCrossRef Nejati V, Pouretemad HR, Bahrami H (2013) Attention training in rehabilitation of children with developmental stuttering. NeuroRehabilitation 32(2):297–303 PubMedCrossRef
55.
go back to reference Oyoun HA, El Dessouky H, Shohdi S, Fawzy A (2010) Assessment of working memory in normal children and children who stutter. J Am Sci 6(11):562–566 Oyoun HA, El Dessouky H, Shohdi S, Fawzy A (2010) Assessment of working memory in normal children and children who stutter. J Am Sci 6(11):562–566
56.
go back to reference Smith KA, Iverach L, O’Brian S, Kefalianos E, Reilly S (2014) Anxiety of children and adolescents who stutter: a review. J FluenDisord 40:22–34 Smith KA, Iverach L, O’Brian S, Kefalianos E, Reilly S (2014) Anxiety of children and adolescents who stutter: a review. J FluenDisord 40:22–34
57.
go back to reference Blood GW, Blood IM (2016) Long-term consequences of childhood bullying in adults who stutter: social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life. J FluenDisord 50:72–84 Blood GW, Blood IM (2016) Long-term consequences of childhood bullying in adults who stutter: social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life. J FluenDisord 50:72–84
58.
go back to reference Arnold HS, Conture EG, Key APF, Walden T (2011) Emotional reactivity, regulation and childhood stuttering: a behavioral and electrophysiological study. J Commun Disord 44(3):276–293 PubMedCrossRef Arnold HS, Conture EG, Key APF, Walden T (2011) Emotional reactivity, regulation and childhood stuttering: a behavioral and electrophysiological study. J Commun Disord 44(3):276–293 PubMedCrossRef
59.
go back to reference McClelland MM, Cameron CE, Wanless SB, Murray A, Saracho O, Spodek B (2007) Executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and social-emotional competence. ContempPerspectSoc Learn Early Child Educ 1:113–137 McClelland MM, Cameron CE, Wanless SB, Murray A, Saracho O, Spodek B (2007) Executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and social-emotional competence. ContempPerspectSoc Learn Early Child Educ 1:113–137
60.
go back to reference Russell BS, Lee JO, Spieker S, Oxford ML (2016) Parenting and preschool self-regulation as predictors of social emotional competence in 1st grade. J Res Child Educ 30(2):153–169 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Russell BS, Lee JO, Spieker S, Oxford ML (2016) Parenting and preschool self-regulation as predictors of social emotional competence in 1st grade. J Res Child Educ 30(2):153–169 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Espy KA, Sheffield TD, Wiebe SA, Clark CA, Moehr MJ (2011) Executive control and dimensions of problem behaviors in preschool children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(1):33–46 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Espy KA, Sheffield TD, Wiebe SA, Clark CA, Moehr MJ (2011) Executive control and dimensions of problem behaviors in preschool children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(1):33–46 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
62.
go back to reference Gooch D, Thompson P, Nash HM, Snowling MJ, Hulme C (2016) The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(2):180–187 PubMedCrossRef Gooch D, Thompson P, Nash HM, Snowling MJ, Hulme C (2016) The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(2):180–187 PubMedCrossRef
63.
go back to reference Henry LA, Messer DJ, Nash G (2012) Executive functioning in children with specific language impairment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53(1):37–45 PubMedCrossRef Henry LA, Messer DJ, Nash G (2012) Executive functioning in children with specific language impairment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53(1):37–45 PubMedCrossRef
64.
go back to reference Sinzig J, Morsch D, Bruning N, Schmidt MH, Lehmkuhl G (2008) Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2(1):4 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Sinzig J, Morsch D, Bruning N, Schmidt MH, Lehmkuhl G (2008) Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2(1):4 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
65.
go back to reference Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Kenworthy L, Barton RM (2002) Profiles of everyday executive function in acquired and developmental disorders. Child Neuropsychol 8(2):121–137 PubMedCrossRef Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Kenworthy L, Barton RM (2002) Profiles of everyday executive function in acquired and developmental disorders. Child Neuropsychol 8(2):121–137 PubMedCrossRef
66.
go back to reference Bagdi A, Vacca J (2005) Supporting early childhood social-emotional well being: the building blocks for early learning and school success. Early ChildhEduc J 33(3):145–150 CrossRef Bagdi A, Vacca J (2005) Supporting early childhood social-emotional well being: the building blocks for early learning and school success. Early ChildhEduc J 33(3):145–150 CrossRef
67.
go back to reference Hummer TA, Kronenberger WG, Wang Y, Dunn DW, Mosier KM, Kalnin AJ, Mathews VP (2011) Executive functioning characteristics associated with ADHD comorbidity in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(1):11–19 PubMedCrossRef Hummer TA, Kronenberger WG, Wang Y, Dunn DW, Mosier KM, Kalnin AJ, Mathews VP (2011) Executive functioning characteristics associated with ADHD comorbidity in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(1):11–19 PubMedCrossRef
68.
go back to reference Semrud-Clikeman M, Walkowiak J, Wilkinson A, Butcher B (2010) Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls. J Autism Dev Disord 40(8):1017–1027 PubMedCrossRef Semrud-Clikeman M, Walkowiak J, Wilkinson A, Butcher B (2010) Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls. J Autism Dev Disord 40(8):1017–1027 PubMedCrossRef
69.
go back to reference Oosterlaan J, Scheres A, Sergeant JA (2005) Which executive functioning deficits are associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and comorbid AD/HD+ ODD/CD? J Abnorm Child Psychol 33(1):69–85 PubMedCrossRef Oosterlaan J, Scheres A, Sergeant JA (2005) Which executive functioning deficits are associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and comorbid AD/HD+ ODD/CD? J Abnorm Child Psychol 33(1):69–85 PubMedCrossRef
70.
go back to reference Gioia GA, Espy KA, Isquith PK Behavior rating inventory of executive function preschool version (BRIEF-P) Gioia GA, Espy KA, Isquith PK Behavior rating inventory of executive function preschool version (BRIEF-P)
72.
go back to reference Halle TG, Hair EC, Wandner LD, Chien NC (2012) Profiles of school readiness among four-year-old head start children. Early Child Res Q 27(4):613–626 CrossRef Halle TG, Hair EC, Wandner LD, Chien NC (2012) Profiles of school readiness among four-year-old head start children. Early Child Res Q 27(4):613–626 CrossRef
73.
go back to reference Hipp JR, Bauer DJ (2006) Local solutions in the estimation of growth mixture models. Psychol Methods 11:36–53 PubMedCrossRef Hipp JR, Bauer DJ (2006) Local solutions in the estimation of growth mixture models. Psychol Methods 11:36–53 PubMedCrossRef
74.
go back to reference Masyn KE (2013) Latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. In: Little TD (ed) The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods vol. 2: Statistical analysis. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 551–611 Masyn KE (2013) Latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. In: Little TD (ed) The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods vol. 2: Statistical analysis. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 551–611
75.
go back to reference Nylund-Gibson K, Choi AY (2018) Ten frequently asked questions about latent class analysis. Transl Issues PsycholSci 4(4):440–461 CrossRef Nylund-Gibson K, Choi AY (2018) Ten frequently asked questions about latent class analysis. Transl Issues PsycholSci 4(4):440–461 CrossRef
76.
go back to reference DiStefano C, Kamphaus RW (2006) Investigating subtypes of child development: a comparison of cluster analysis and latent class cluster analysis in typology Creation. EducPsycholMeas 5:778–794 DiStefano C, Kamphaus RW (2006) Investigating subtypes of child development: a comparison of cluster analysis and latent class cluster analysis in typology Creation. EducPsycholMeas 5:778–794
77.
78.
go back to reference Denham S, Mason T, Caverly S, Schmidt M, Hackney R, Caswell C, DeMulder E (2001) Preschoolers at play: co-socialisers of emotional and social competence. Int J Behav Dev 25(4):290–301 CrossRef Denham S, Mason T, Caverly S, Schmidt M, Hackney R, Caswell C, DeMulder E (2001) Preschoolers at play: co-socialisers of emotional and social competence. Int J Behav Dev 25(4):290–301 CrossRef
79.
go back to reference Brody LR (2000) The socialization of gender differences in emotional expression: display rules, infant temperament, and differentiation. Gender Emot 2(11):122–137 Brody LR (2000) The socialization of gender differences in emotional expression: display rules, infant temperament, and differentiation. Gender Emot 2(11):122–137
80.
go back to reference Grissom NM, Reyes TM (2019) Let’s call the whole thing off: evaluating gender and sex differences in executive function. Neuropsychopharmacology 44(1):86–96 PubMedCrossRef Grissom NM, Reyes TM (2019) Let’s call the whole thing off: evaluating gender and sex differences in executive function. Neuropsychopharmacology 44(1):86–96 PubMedCrossRef
81.
go back to reference Briley PM, Ellis C Jr (2018) The coexistence of disabling conditions in children who stutter: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey. J Speech Lang Hear Res 61(12):2895–2905 PubMedCrossRef Briley PM, Ellis C Jr (2018) The coexistence of disabling conditions in children who stutter: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey. J Speech Lang Hear Res 61(12):2895–2905 PubMedCrossRef
83.
go back to reference Ntourou K, Conture EG, Walden TA (2013) Emotional reactivity and regulation in preschool-age children who stutter. J FluenDisord 38(3):260–274 Ntourou K, Conture EG, Walden TA (2013) Emotional reactivity and regulation in preschool-age children who stutter. J FluenDisord 38(3):260–274
84.
go back to reference Blood GW, Blood IM, Tellis GM, Gabel RM (2003) A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. J FluenDisord 28(2):143–159 Blood GW, Blood IM, Tellis GM, Gabel RM (2003) A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. J FluenDisord 28(2):143–159
85.
go back to reference Andrews C, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A, Menzies R, Lowe R (2016) Phase II trial of a syllable-timed speech treatment for school-age children who stutter. J FluenDisord 48:44–55 Andrews C, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A, Menzies R, Lowe R (2016) Phase II trial of a syllable-timed speech treatment for school-age children who stutter. J FluenDisord 48:44–55
86.
go back to reference Alm PA, Risberg J (2007) Stuttering in adults: the acoustic startle response, temperamental traits, and biological factors. J Commun Disord 40(1):1–41 PubMedCrossRef Alm PA, Risberg J (2007) Stuttering in adults: the acoustic startle response, temperamental traits, and biological factors. J Commun Disord 40(1):1–41 PubMedCrossRef
87.
go back to reference Baker L, Cantwell DP (1982) Psychiatric disorder in children with different types of communication disorders. J Commun Disord 15(2):113–126 PubMedCrossRef Baker L, Cantwell DP (1982) Psychiatric disorder in children with different types of communication disorders. J Commun Disord 15(2):113–126 PubMedCrossRef
88.
go back to reference Briley PM, O’Brien K, Ellis C (2019) Behavioral, emotional, and social well-being in children who stutter: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey. J Dev Phys Disabil 31(1):39–53 CrossRef Briley PM, O’Brien K, Ellis C (2019) Behavioral, emotional, and social well-being in children who stutter: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey. J Dev Phys Disabil 31(1):39–53 CrossRef
89.
go back to reference Iverach L, Rapee RM (2014) Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. J FluenDisord 40:69–82 Iverach L, Rapee RM (2014) Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. J FluenDisord 40:69–82
90.
go back to reference McAllister J, Collier J, Shepstone L (2012) The impact of adolescent stuttering on educational and employment outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study. J FluenDisord 37(2):106–121 McAllister J, Collier J, Shepstone L (2012) The impact of adolescent stuttering on educational and employment outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study. J FluenDisord 37(2):106–121
91.
go back to reference Karniol R (1995) Stuttering, language, and cognition: a review and a model of stuttering as suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA). Psychol Bull 117(1):104 PubMedCrossRef Karniol R (1995) Stuttering, language, and cognition: a review and a model of stuttering as suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA). Psychol Bull 117(1):104 PubMedCrossRef
92.
go back to reference Ratner N, Wijnen F (2007) The vicious cycle: Linguistic encoding, self-monitoring and stuttering. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Fluency Disorders, Dublin, Ireland Ratner N, Wijnen F (2007) The vicious cycle: Linguistic encoding, self-monitoring and stuttering. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Fluency Disorders, Dublin, Ireland
93.
go back to reference Vasic N, Wijnen F (2001) Stuttering and speech monitoring. Paper presented at the Proceedings of DISS 2001, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Vasic N, Wijnen F (2001) Stuttering and speech monitoring. Paper presented at the Proceedings of DISS 2001, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
95.
go back to reference Howell P, Au-Yeung J (2002) The EXPLAN theory of fluency control applied to the diagnosis of stuttering. Amst Stud Theory Hist Linguist SciSer 4:75–94 Howell P, Au-Yeung J (2002) The EXPLAN theory of fluency control applied to the diagnosis of stuttering. Amst Stud Theory Hist Linguist SciSer 4:75–94
97.
go back to reference Karrass J, Walden TA, Conture EG, Graham CG, Arnold HS, Hartfield KN, Schwenk KA (2006) Relation of emotional reactivity and regulation to childhood stuttering. J Commun Disord 39(6):402–423 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Karrass J, Walden TA, Conture EG, Graham CG, Arnold HS, Hartfield KN, Schwenk KA (2006) Relation of emotional reactivity and regulation to childhood stuttering. J Commun Disord 39(6):402–423 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
98.
go back to reference Druce T, Debney S, Byrt T (1997) Evaluation of an intensive treatment program for stuttering in young children. J Fluency Disorders 22(3):169–186 CrossRef Druce T, Debney S, Byrt T (1997) Evaluation of an intensive treatment program for stuttering in young children. J Fluency Disorders 22(3):169–186 CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Latent Class Analysis Reveals Distinct Groups Based on Executive Function and Socioemotional Traits, Developmental Conditions, and Stuttering: A Population Study
Auteurs
Sara Ashley Smith
Ai Leen Choo
Matthew E. Foster
Publicatiedatum
30-03-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development / Uitgave 4/2022
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01160-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 4/2022

Child Psychiatry & Human Development 4/2022 Naar de uitgave