Despite the similarities observed between the fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes, few studies have compared their behavioral profiles outside of ASD symptomatology. In the present study, we sought to compare lexical and grammatical abilities in these two conditions. Comparisons of language abilities in both of these conditions are particularly interesting because both conditions are characterized by difficulties navigating social interactions. Results suggest that although both FXS and ASD are associated with language difficulties, there are important differences between the two conditions in terms of the language profiles observed and the factors influencing language when considering children of similar developmental levels. Theoretical implications are discussed.