Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Peers are thought to increase adolescents’ risk-taking behavior, at least in part, by heightening their sensitivity to rewards. In this study, we investigate whether the effect of peers on late adolescent males is exacerbated when youth are cognitively fatigued, a state characterized by weakened cognitive control and heightened orientation toward rewards, and well established as a factor that compromises decision making. We hypothesized that fatigued adolescents’ top-down regulation of reward-related impulses may be compromised, thereby potentially amplifying the effect of peers on reward- and risk-seeking behavior. Late adolescent males between 18 and 22 years old (mean age = 19.64, SD = 1.22; 61% Caucasian) completed a decision-making battery either alone or in the presence of 3 same-sex peers, and were either cognitively fatigued or non-fatigued. We compared behavior between four experimental groups—fatigued adolescents in a peer group, non-fatigued adolescents in a peer group, fatigued adolescents by themselves, and non-fatigued adolescents by themselves. The findings showed that cognitive fatigue and peer presence evinced independent effects on risk taking and sensitivity to rewards, but that these factors do not influence adolescent decision-making in an additive or synergistic fashion. To our surprise, being fatigued reduces (but does not eliminate) the effect of peers of risk taking. Moreover, the impact of peers on adolescent males’ ability to learn from negative consequences is not compromised when adolescents are in a state of mental fatigue. Our results suggest that mental fatigue increases late adolescent males’ reward sensitivity to the same extent as peer presence, but does not amplify the peer effect on risk-taking behavior. In this regard, grouping adolescents when they are fatigued may be less dangerous than when they are rested. Similarly, the added presence of peers does not further exacerbate the effect of fatigue on adolescent’s reward- and risk-seeking inclinations. In fact, given peers’ unique effect on adolescents’ ability to learn from costly decisions, our findings suggest that seeking the presence of peers—which is often a rewarding experience in and of itself—may be an adaptive response to mitigate the impact of fatigue on decision making.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Brown, B. B., Clasen, D. R., & Eicher, S. A. (1986). Perception of peer pressure, peer conformity dispositions, and self-reported behavior among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 22, 521–530.
Brown, B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. Lerner, L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. 3rd edn. (pp. 74–103). New York, NY: Wiley. Vol. 2.
Cascio, C. N., Carp, J., O'Donnell, M. B., Tinney, Jr, F. J., Bingham, C. R., Shope, J. T., & Falk, E. B. (2014). Buffering social influence: Neural correlates of response inhibition predict driving safety in the presence of a peer. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(1), 83–95. CrossRef
Chassin, L., Hussong, A., Barrera, Jr., M., Molina, B., Trim, R., & Ritter, J. (2004). Adolescent substance use. In R. Lerner, L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. 2nd edn. (pp. 665–696). New York, NY: Wiley. 2004.
Derrick, J. L. (2012). Energized by television: Familiar fictional worlds restore self-control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(3), 299–307. CrossRef
Green, L., Myerson, J., & Macaux, E. (2005). Temporal discounting when the choice is between two delayed rewards. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 1121–1133. PubMed
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Alberts, H., Anggono, C. O., Batailler, C., Birt, A., & Zwienenberg, M. (2015). A multi-lab pre-registered replication of the ego- depletion effect. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 546–573. CrossRef
Hockey, G. R. J., Maule, A. J., Clough, P. J., & Bdzola, L. (2000). Effects of negative mood states on risk in everyday decision making. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 823–855. CrossRef
Hockey, G. R. J. (2013). The Psychology of Fatigue. Cambridge Univerity Press. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.org/ca/academic/subjects/psychology/cognition/psychology-fatigue-work-effort-and-control.
Inzlicht, M., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2016). Beyond limited resources: Self-control failure as a product of shifting priorities. In K. Vohs, R. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. 3rd edn. (pp. 165–181). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2016.
Kim-Spoon, J., Kahn, R., Deater-Deckard, K., Chiu, P., Steinberg, L., & King-Casas, B. (2016). Risky decision making in a laboratory driving task is associated with health risk behaviors during late adolescence but not adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40, 58–63. CrossRefPubMed
Meldrum, R. C., & Restivo, E. (2014). The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: Relative deprivation matters. Preventive Medicine, 36, 24–28. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide. 7th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61, 635–655. CrossRef
Ouimet, M. C., Simons-Morton, B. G., Zador, P. L., Lerner, N. D., Freedman, M., Duncan, G. D., & Wang, J. (2010). Using the U.S. National household travel survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers’ relative risk of fatal crash involvement. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42, 689–694. CrossRef
Pilcher, J. J., & Walters, A. S. (2010). How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students’ cognitive performance. Journal of American College Health, 46(3), 121–126. CrossRef
Saunders, B., & Inzlicht, M. (2017). Vigour and fatigue: How variation in affect underlies effective self-control. In T. Braver (Ed.), Motivation and cognitive control. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
Segalowitz, S. J., Santesso, D. L., Willoughby, T., Reker, D. L., Campbell, K., Chalmers, H., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2012). Adolescent peer interaction and trait surgency weaken medial prefrontal cortex responses to failure. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 115–124. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsq090. CrossRefPubMed
Rosenbaum, G. (2014). Adolescent cognitive control unaffected y presence of peers. Paper presented at The International Congress for Integrative Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience meeting. Los Angeles, CA.
Spear, L. P. (2009). The behavioral neuroscience of adolescence. New York, NY: Norton.
- Joint Effects of Peer Presence and Fatigue on Risk and Reward Processing in Late Adolescence
- Springer US