Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 3/2019

06-11-2017 | Original Article

Joint cognition and the role of human agency in random number choices

Auteurs: Yukio Maehara, Satoru Saito, John Nicholas Towse

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 3/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Joint cognition refers to the mental systems that support group performance when carrying out a shared, or jointly owned task. We focused here on understanding the social configurations that underpin key phenomena in joint cognition, in particular, whether individual cognition in task-sharing environments is mostly shaped by social factors or not. To this end, we investigated, first and mainly, whether human presence is necessary for the creation of joint performance; second and separately, whether prior experience of task sharing has an adaptive influence on subsequent individual choices; and third and additionally, whether individual differences in a social trait mediate joint performance. We describe an experiment in which participants combined with another human or a computer as they attempted to generate a paired sequence that was as random as possible. First, we found little difference in joint performance with regard to whether a human or a computer was the co-participant, except for immediate repetitive response. Second, we found evidence for choice adaptation, but only under the lower time pressure. Third, we replicated previous research in which no systematic link was established between social desirability and joint performance. We conclude that joint cognition phenomena may be rooted primarily in turn-taking configurations rather than in social dynamics per se.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
A two-way mixed ANOVA for individual immediate repetition with task order (before and after joint conditions; between-participants) and response pace (slow and fast; within-participants) as factors indicated that an interaction between the two factors was not significant, F(1, 36) = 0.07, p = 0.787, η2 = 0.002. We suggest this is because variance of immediate repetition is commonly too large. However, we suggested the necessity of closer inspection of choice adaptation and then set up a specific hypothesis that slow response pace, but not fast response pace, in individual task helped participants intentionally apply repetitive responses that they had experienced in joint task. Therefore, we administered separate analyses for the slow and fast response pace.
 
2
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 124.0, z = 1.81, p = 0.070.
 
3
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 143.5, z = 1.09, p = 0.278.
 
4
We thank a reviewer for identifying this possibility.
 
5
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 142.5, z = 1.08, p = 0.280.
 
6
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 158.5, z = 0.68, p = 0.495.
 
7
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 138.5, z = 1.24, p = 0.215.
 
8
Mann–Whitney’s U test: U = 159.5, z = 0.65, p = 0.516.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Allport, A., Styles, E. A., & Hsieh, S. (1994). Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tasks. In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance (Vol. XV, pp. 421–452). Cambridge: MIT Press. Allport, A., Styles, E. A., & Hsieh, S. (1994). Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tasks. In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance (Vol. XV, pp. 421–452). Cambridge: MIT Press.
go back to reference Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The capacity for generating information by randomization. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(2), 119–129. CrossRefPubMed Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The capacity for generating information by randomization. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(2), 119–129. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brugger, P. (1997). Variables that influence the generation of random sequences: An update. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84(2), 627–661. CrossRefPubMed Brugger, P. (1997). Variables that influence the generation of random sequences: An update. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84(2), 627–661. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cooper, R. P. (2016). Executive functions and the generation of “random” sequential responses: A computational account. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 73(1), 153–168. CrossRef Cooper, R. P. (2016). Executive functions and the generation of “random” sequential responses: A computational account. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 73(1), 153–168. CrossRef
go back to reference Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(4), 349–354. CrossRefPubMed Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(4), 349–354. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113–126. CrossRef Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113–126. CrossRef
go back to reference Dolk, T., Hommel, B., Colzato, L. S., Schutz-Bosbach, S., Prinz, W., & Liepelt, R. (2014a). The joint Simon effect: A review and theoretical integration. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 974. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Dolk, T., Hommel, B., Colzato, L. S., Schutz-Bosbach, S., Prinz, W., & Liepelt, R. (2014a). The joint Simon effect: A review and theoretical integration. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 974. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Dolk, T., Hommel, B., Prinz, W., & Liepelt, R. (2014b). The joint flanker effect: Less social than previously thought. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21(5), 1224–1230. CrossRefPubMed Dolk, T., Hommel, B., Prinz, W., & Liepelt, R. (2014b). The joint flanker effect: Less social than previously thought. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21(5), 1224–1230. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dudarev, V., & Hassin, R. R. (2016). Social task switching: On the automatic social engagement of executive functions. Cognition, 146, 223–228. CrossRefPubMed Dudarev, V., & Hassin, R. R. (2016). Social task switching: On the automatic social engagement of executive functions. Cognition, 146, 223–228. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Evans, F. J. (1978). Monitoring attention deployment by random number generation: An index to measure subjective randomness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12(1), 35–38. CrossRef Evans, F. J. (1978). Monitoring attention deployment by random number generation: An index to measure subjective randomness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12(1), 35–38. CrossRef
go back to reference Hoppitt, W., & Laland, K. N. (2013). Social learning: An introduction to mechanism, methods, and models. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef Hoppitt, W., & Laland, K. N. (2013). Social learning: An introduction to mechanism, methods, and models. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Jahanshahi, M., Dirnberger, G., Fuller, R., & Frith, C. D. (2000). The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in random number generation: A study with positron emission tomography. Neuroimage, 12(6), 713–725. CrossRefPubMed Jahanshahi, M., Dirnberger, G., Fuller, R., & Frith, C. D. (2000). The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in random number generation: A study with positron emission tomography. Neuroimage, 12(6), 713–725. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jersild, A. T. (1927). Mental set and shift (p. 89). No: Archives of Psychology. Jersild, A. T. (1927). Mental set and shift (p. 89). No: Archives of Psychology.
go back to reference Kiesel, A., Steinhauser, M., Wendt, M., Falkenstein, M., Jost, K., Philipp, A. M., & Koch, I. (2010). Control and interference in task switching—a review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 849–874. CrossRefPubMed Kiesel, A., Steinhauser, M., Wendt, M., Falkenstein, M., Jost, K., Philipp, A. M., & Koch, I. (2010). Control and interference in task switching—a review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 849–874. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Knoblich, G., Butterfill, S., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Psychological research on joint action: Theory and data. In B. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 54, pp. 59–101). Burlington: Academic Press. Knoblich, G., Butterfill, S., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Psychological research on joint action: Theory and data. In B. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 54, pp. 59–101). Burlington: Academic Press.
go back to reference Krach, S., Hegel, F., Wrede, B., Sagerer, G., Binkofski, F., & Kircher, T. (2008). Can machines think? Interaction and perspective taking with robots investigated via fMRI. PLoS One, 3(7), e2597. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Krach, S., Hegel, F., Wrede, B., Sagerer, G., Binkofski, F., & Kircher, T. (2008). Can machines think? Interaction and perspective taking with robots investigated via fMRI. PLoS One, 3(7), e2597. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Liefooghe, B. (2016). Joint task switching. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(1), 60–78. CrossRef Liefooghe, B. (2016). Joint task switching. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(1), 60–78. CrossRef
go back to reference Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(4), 455–470. CrossRefPubMed Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(4), 455–470. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100. CrossRef Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100. CrossRef
go back to reference Müller, B. C. N., Kühn, S., van Baaren, R. B., Dotsch, R., Brass, M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2011). Perspective taking eliminates differences in co-representation of out-group members’ actions. Experimental Brain Research, 211(3–4), 423–428. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Müller, B. C. N., Kühn, S., van Baaren, R. B., Dotsch, R., Brass, M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2011). Perspective taking eliminates differences in co-representation of out-group members’ actions. Experimental Brain Research, 211(3–4), 423–428. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Neuringer, A. (1986). Can people behave “randomly”?: The role of feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115(1), 62–75. CrossRef Neuringer, A. (1986). Can people behave “randomly”?: The role of feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115(1), 62–75. CrossRef
go back to reference Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). How the group affects the mind: A cognitive model of idea generation in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 186–213. CrossRefPubMed Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). How the group affects the mind: A cognitive model of idea generation in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 186–213. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Obhi, S. S., & Hall, P. (2011). Sense of agency and intentional binding in joint action. Experimental Brain Research, 211(3–4), 655–662. CrossRefPubMed Obhi, S. S., & Hall, P. (2011). Sense of agency and intentional binding in joint action. Experimental Brain Research, 211(3–4), 655–662. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3–72. CrossRefPubMed Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3–72. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Press, C. (2011). Action observation and robotic agents: Learning and anthropomorphism. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 35, 1410–1418. CrossRef Press, C. (2011). Action observation and robotic agents: Learning and anthropomorphism. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 35, 1410–1418. CrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, R. D., & Monsell, S. (1995). Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124(2), 207–231. CrossRef Rogers, R. D., & Monsell, S. (1995). Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124(2), 207–231. CrossRef
go back to reference Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H., & Knoblich, G. (2006). Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(2), 70–76. CrossRefPubMed Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H., & Knoblich, G. (2006). Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(2), 70–76. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stenzel, A., Chinellato, E., Tirado Bou, M. A., del Pobil, Á. P., Lappe, M., & Liepelt, R. (2012). When humanoid robots become human-like interaction partners: Co-representation of robotic actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(5), 1073–1077. PubMed Stenzel, A., Chinellato, E., Tirado Bou, M. A., del Pobil, Á. P., Lappe, M., & Liepelt, R. (2012). When humanoid robots become human-like interaction partners: Co-representation of robotic actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(5), 1073–1077. PubMed
go back to reference Towse, J. N. (1998). On random generation and the central executive of working memory. British Journal of Psychology, 89(1), 77–101. CrossRefPubMed Towse, J. N. (1998). On random generation and the central executive of working memory. British Journal of Psychology, 89(1), 77–101. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Towse, J. N., & Mclachlan, A. (1999). An exploration of random generation among children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17(3), 363–380. CrossRef Towse, J. N., & Mclachlan, A. (1999). An exploration of random generation among children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17(3), 363–380. CrossRef
go back to reference Towse, J. N., & Neil, D. (1998). Analyzing human random generation behavior: A review of methods used and a computer program for describing performance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 30(4), 583–591. CrossRef Towse, J. N., & Neil, D. (1998). Analyzing human random generation behavior: A review of methods used and a computer program for describing performance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 30(4), 583–591. CrossRef
go back to reference Towse, J. N., Towse, A. S., Saito, S., Maehara, Y., & Miyake, A. (2016). Joint cognition: Thought contagion and the consequences of cooperation when sharing the task of random sequence generation. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151306. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Towse, J. N., Towse, A. S., Saito, S., Maehara, Y., & Miyake, A. (2016). Joint cognition: Thought contagion and the consequences of cooperation when sharing the task of random sequence generation. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151306. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Vesper, C., Abramova, E., Bütepage, J., Ciardo, F., Crossey, B., Effenberg, A., & Wahn, B. (2017). Joint action: Mental representations, shared information and general mechanisms for coordinating with others. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 2039. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Vesper, C., Abramova, E., Bütepage, J., Ciardo, F., Crossey, B., Effenberg, A., & Wahn, B. (2017). Joint action: Mental representations, shared information and general mechanisms for coordinating with others. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 2039. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Wenke, D., Atmaca, S., Holländer, A., Liepelt, R., Baess, P., & Prinz, W. (2011). What is shared in joint action? Issues of co-representation, response conflict, and agent identification. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 2(2), 147–172. CrossRef Wenke, D., Atmaca, S., Holländer, A., Liepelt, R., Baess, P., & Prinz, W. (2011). What is shared in joint action? Issues of co-representation, response conflict, and agent identification. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 2(2), 147–172. CrossRef
go back to reference Yamaguchi, M., Wall, H. J., & Hommel, B. (2017a). Action-effect sharing induces task-set sharing in joint task switching. Cognition, 165, 113–120. CrossRefPubMed Yamaguchi, M., Wall, H. J., & Hommel, B. (2017a). Action-effect sharing induces task-set sharing in joint task switching. Cognition, 165, 113–120. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Yamaguchi, M., Wall, H. J., & Hommel, B. (2017b). No evidence for shared representations of task sets in joint task switching. Psychological Research, 81(6), 1166–1177. CrossRefPubMed Yamaguchi, M., Wall, H. J., & Hommel, B. (2017b). No evidence for shared representations of task sets in joint task switching. Psychological Research, 81(6), 1166–1177. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Joint cognition and the role of human agency in random number choices
Auteurs
Yukio Maehara
Satoru Saito
John Nicholas Towse
Publicatiedatum
06-11-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 3/2019
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0944-9