Duty hours reform is predicated on the assumption that working fewer consecutive hours will result in more and better-quality sleep hours, which will yield residents who will provide safer patient care. 1−3 Existing research is focused primarily on interventions and outcomes related to residents’ on-duty experiences; results of these studies are conflicting and have been used variably to justify or criticize duty hours reform. 2,4−8 With very little research into what residents actually do postcall and how they decide what to do, we do not know what influences residents’ decisions about their postcall time. Consequently, it is unclear whether postcall behaviours are particularly entrenched, or what educational or organizational strategies might be implemented to influence them. The lack of such insight is a critical gap in the literature, as researchers have recently found that residents were unlikely to change or improve their sleep habits based solely on an educational intervention to improve their knowledge of sleep physiology principles.9 This result begs the ubiquitous knowledge translation question: If improved knowledge is not influential in changing residents’ behaviour, then what would be? .
Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important competency for physicians. At the same time, collaboration is growing as a value and expectation of health care delivery. What has not been explored is the relationship between leadership and collaboration in physicians’ practice. The purpose of this study was to explore this relationship by asking ‘How do physicians experience leadership and collaboration during their daily team interactions?’Leadership and collaboration are highly valued and potentially conflicting competencies in medical practice. While there has been attention to leadership and to collaboration individually, little attention has been paid to how they interact. With physicians experiencing increasingly formal expectations that they will lead and collaborate effectively, (e.g., CanMEDS 2015), we require systematic knowledge about how these competencies play out in clinical teams.