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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 3/2021

28-03-2020 | Original Article

Item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) modulates, but does not generate, the backward crosstalk effect

Auteurs: Sandra J. Thomson, Ariana C. Simone, Scott Watter

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 3/2021

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Abstract

When both tasks in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm have compatible manual responses, a compatibility benefit in RT can often be observed on Task1 performance, in apparent violation of a strict traditional response selection bottleneck model. This compatibility-based backward crosstalk effect (BCE) has been generally attributed to automatic activation of Task2 response information, in parallel with attended Task1 performance. This paper tests a potential alternative mechanism of the BCE. Item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effects are previously well demonstrated, where learning of associations between stimuli and task conflict (e.g., that particular Stroop items are typically incongruent) allows rapidly and automatically elicited control adjustments in performance. Similar proportion manipulations have recently been shown to modulate the BCE in dual-task performance. If participants could similarly learn associations between particular pairs of stimuli and resulting response conflict in a PRP task, this kind of mechanism could produce relative speeding versus slowing of Task1 RT on response compatible versus incompatible trials. This pattern of data directly describes the BCE, and represents a potential alternative mechanism that does not require any response crosstalk, and would reinforce a stricter view of the response selection bottleneck model, if true. Over two experiments, we demonstrate that while the BCE is sensitive to ISPC-like effects based on Task1 conflict contingencies, the BCE is insensitive to relationships between particular pairs of stimuli and associated conflict. While ISPC effects can modulate the BCE, they do not generate the BCE. These findings reinforce the current Task2 parallel response activation account of the BCE.

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Voetnoten
1
FCEs are commonly observed in Task2. Importantly, they are often larger than BCEs (e.g., Hommel, 1998; Janczyk, 2016; Janczyk, Renas, & Durst, 2018b; Logan & Gordon, 2001; Logan & Schulkind, 2000), indicating they are not simply due to propagation of the BCE onto Task2 (see also Schubert et al. 2008, and Thomson & Watter, 2013, for specific assessments of the propagation of Task2 response activation from Task1 to Task2).
 
2
Thomson et al. (2010) observed a BCE even when all Task2 stimuli were encountered only once. They interpreted this as evidence for automatic category-to-response translation proceeding in parallel with central stage processing in Task1. However, it remains possible that rather than associating the automatically retrieved Task2 category information with a response, participants simply learned that particular Task1–Task2 category pairs were more difficult and required additional cognitive control. Once again, while this difficulty on incompatible trials would initially be experienced in Task2 performance, it may eventually become associated with particular category pairs and result in slower performance even in Task1 for incompatible relative to compatible trials.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Gratton, G., Coles, M. G., & Donchin, E. (1992). Optimizing the use of information: strategic control of activation of responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 480–506. CrossRef Gratton, G., Coles, M. G., & Donchin, E. (1992). Optimizing the use of information: strategic control of activation of responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 480–506. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) modulates, but does not generate, the backward crosstalk effect
Auteurs
Sandra J. Thomson
Ariana C. Simone
Scott Watter
Publicatiedatum
28-03-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 3/2021
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01318-z