Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 8/2019

02-03-2019 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Item Response Theory Analysis of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Its Short Forms

Auteurs: William E. Pelham III, Oscar Gonzalez, Stephen A. Metcalf, Cady L. Whicker, Emily A. Scherer, Katie Witkiewitz, Lisa A. Marsch, David P. Mackinnon

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 8/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a self-report measure of mindfulness with forms of several different lengths, including the FFMQ-39, FFMQ-24, and FFMQ-15. We use item response theory analysis to directly compare the functioning of these three forms.

Methods

Data were drawn from a non-clinical Amazon Mechanical Turk study (N = 522) and studies of aftercare treatment of individuals with substance use disorders (combined N = 454). The item and test functioning of the three FFMQ forms were studied and compared.

Results

All 39 items were strongly related to the facet latent variables, and the items discriminated over a similar range of the latent mindfulness constructs. Items provided more information in the low-to-medium range of latent mindfulness than in the high range. Scores in three of the five FFMQ-39 facets were unreliable when measuring individuals in the high range of latent mindfulness, resulting from ceiling effects in item responses. Reliability in the high range of mindfulness was further reduced in the FFMQ-24 and FFMQ-15, such that short forms may be ill-suited for applications that require reliable measurement in the high range.

Conclusions

Results suggest the existing FFMQ item pool cannot be reduced without negatively affecting either overall reliability or the span of mindfulness over which reliability is assessed. Conditional test reliability curves and item functioning parameters can aid investigators in tailoring their choice of FFMQ form to the reliability they hope to achieve and to the range of latent mindfulness over which they must reliably measure.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Andrich, D. (2004). Controversy and the Rasch model: a characteristic of incompatible paradigms? Medical Care, 42, I7–I16. CrossRefPubMed Andrich, D. (2004). Controversy and the Rasch model: a characteristic of incompatible paradigms? Medical Care, 42, I7–I16. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. CrossRefPubMed Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Carmody, J., & Hunsinger, M. (2012). Weekly change in mindfulness and perceived stress in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 755–765. CrossRefPubMed Baer, R. A., Carmody, J., & Hunsinger, M. (2012). Weekly change in mindfulness and perceived stress in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 755–765. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bohlmeijer, E., ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18, 308–320. CrossRefPubMed Bohlmeijer, E., ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18, 308–320. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowen, S., Chawla, N., Collins, S. E., Witkiewitz, K., Hsu, S. H., Grow, J., et al. (2009). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot efficacy trial. Substance Abuse, 30, 295–305. CrossRefPubMed Bowen, S., Chawla, N., Collins, S. E., Witkiewitz, K., Hsu, S. H., Grow, J., et al. (2009). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot efficacy trial. Substance Abuse, 30, 295–305. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G. A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: a clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G. A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: a clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Clifasefi, S. L., Grow, J., Chawla, N., Hsu, S. H., et al. (2014). Relative efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention, standard relapse prevention, and treatment as usual for substance use disorders: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 547–556. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Clifasefi, S. L., Grow, J., Chawla, N., Hsu, S. H., et al. (2014). Relative efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention, standard relapse prevention, and treatment as usual for substance use disorders: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 547–556. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Chalmer, R. P. (2012). mirt: a multidimensional item response theory package for the R environment. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–29. Chalmer, R. P. (2012). mirt: a multidimensional item response theory package for the R environment. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–29.
go back to reference Christopher, M. S., Christopher, V., & Charoensuk, S. (2009). Assessing “Western” mindfulness among Thai Theravāda Buddhist monks. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, 303–314. CrossRef Christopher, M. S., Christopher, V., & Charoensuk, S. (2009). Assessing “Western” mindfulness among Thai Theravāda Buddhist monks. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, 303–314. CrossRef
go back to reference Christopher, M. S., Neuser, N. J., Michael, P. G., & Baitmangalkar, A. (2012). Exploring the psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Mindfulness, 3, 124–131. CrossRef Christopher, M. S., Neuser, N. J., Michael, P. G., & Baitmangalkar, A. (2012). Exploring the psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Mindfulness, 3, 124–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Curran, P. J., & Hussong, A. M. (2009). Integrative data analysis: the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets. Psychological Methods, 14, 81–100. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Curran, P. J., & Hussong, A. M. (2009). Integrative data analysis: the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets. Psychological Methods, 14, 81–100. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference de Ayala, R. J. (2009). The theory and practice of item response theory. New York: Guilford Publications. de Ayala, R. J. (2009). The theory and practice of item response theory. New York: Guilford Publications.
go back to reference Edelen, M. O., & Reeve, B. B. (2007). Applying item response theory (IRT) modeling to questionnaire development, evaluation, and refinement. Quality of Life Research, 16, 5–18. CrossRefPubMed Edelen, M. O., & Reeve, B. B. (2007). Applying item response theory (IRT) modeling to questionnaire development, evaluation, and refinement. Quality of Life Research, 16, 5–18. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Edwards, M. C. (2009). An introduction to item response theory using the Need for Cognition Scale. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 507–529. CrossRef Edwards, M. C. (2009). An introduction to item response theory using the Need for Cognition Scale. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 507–529. CrossRef
go back to reference Eisenberg, I. W., Bissett, P. G., Canning, J. R., Dallery, J., Enkavi, A. Z., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., et al. (2018). Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 101, 46–57. CrossRefPubMed Eisenberg, I. W., Bissett, P. G., Canning, J. R., Dallery, J., Enkavi, A. Z., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., et al. (2018). Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of self-regulation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 101, 46–57. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo, R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19, 276–286. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo, R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19, 276–286. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties. Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties.
go back to reference Goldberg, S. B., Wielgosz, J., Dahl, C., Schuyler, B., MacCoon, D. S., Rosenkranz, M., et al. (2016). Does the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire measure what we think it does? Construct validity evidence from an active controlled randomized clinical trial. Psychological Assessment, 28, 1009–1014. CrossRefPubMed Goldberg, S. B., Wielgosz, J., Dahl, C., Schuyler, B., MacCoon, D. S., Rosenkranz, M., et al. (2016). Does the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire measure what we think it does? Construct validity evidence from an active controlled randomized clinical trial. Psychological Assessment, 28, 1009–1014. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grossman, P. (2008). On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 405–408. CrossRefPubMed Grossman, P. (2008). On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 405–408. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23, 1034–1040. CrossRefPubMed Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23, 1034–1040. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grossman, P., & Dam, N. T. V. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12, 219–239. CrossRef Grossman, P., & Dam, N. T. V. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12, 219–239. CrossRef
go back to reference Gu, J., Strauss, C., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Karl, A., Cavanagh, K., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression. Psychological Assessment, 28, 791–802. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gu, J., Strauss, C., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Karl, A., Cavanagh, K., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression. Psychological Assessment, 28, 791–802. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hambleton, R. K., & Swaminathan, H. (1985). Item response theory: Principles and applications. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. Hambleton, R. K., & Swaminathan, H. (1985). Item response theory: Principles and applications. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
go back to reference Hou, J., Wong, S. Y.-S., Lo, H. H.-M., Mak, W. W.-S., & Ma, H. S.-W. (2014). Validation of a Chinese version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Hong Kong and development of a short form. Assessment, 21, 363–371. CrossRefPubMed Hou, J., Wong, S. Y.-S., Lo, H. H.-M., Mak, W. W.-S., & Ma, H. S.-W. (2014). Validation of a Chinese version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Hong Kong and development of a short form. Assessment, 21, 363–371. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Karyadi, K. A., VanderVeen, J. D., & Cyders, M. A. (2014). A meta-analysis of the relationship between trait mindfulness and substance use behaviors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 1–10. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Karyadi, K. A., VanderVeen, J. D., & Cyders, M. A. (2014). A meta-analysis of the relationship between trait mindfulness and substance use behaviors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 1–10. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lee, W. C., & Lee, G. (2018). IRT linking and equating. In P. Irwing, T. Booth, & D. J. Hughes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of psychometric testing: a multidisciplinary reference on scale and test development (pp. 639–673). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. CrossRef Lee, W. C., & Lee, G. (2018). IRT linking and equating. In P. Irwing, T. Booth, & D. J. Hughes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of psychometric testing: a multidisciplinary reference on scale and test development (pp. 639–673). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. CrossRef
go back to reference Marsh, H. W., Ellis, L. A., Parada, R. H., Richards, G., & Heubeck, B. G. (2005). A short version of the Self Description Questionnaire II: operationalizing criteria for short-form evaluation with new applications of confirmatory factor analyses. Psychological Assessment, 17, 81–102. CrossRefPubMed Marsh, H. W., Ellis, L. A., Parada, R. H., Richards, G., & Heubeck, B. G. (2005). A short version of the Self Description Questionnaire II: operationalizing criteria for short-form evaluation with new applications of confirmatory factor analyses. Psychological Assessment, 17, 81–102. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Medvedev, O. N., Siegert, R. J., Kersten, P., & Krägeloh, C. U. (2017). Improving the precision of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire using a Rasch approach. Mindfulness, 8, 995–1008. CrossRef Medvedev, O. N., Siegert, R. J., Kersten, P., & Krägeloh, C. U. (2017). Improving the precision of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire using a Rasch approach. Mindfulness, 8, 995–1008. CrossRef
go back to reference Medvedev, O. N., Titkova, E. A., Siegert, R. J., Hwang, Y.-S., & Krägeloh, C. U. (2018). Evaluating short versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire using Rasch analysis. Mindfulness, 9, 1411–1422. Medvedev, O. N., Titkova, E. A., Siegert, R. J., Hwang, Y.-S., & Krägeloh, C. U. (2018). Evaluating short versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire using Rasch analysis. Mindfulness, 9, 1411–1422.
go back to reference Park, T., Reilly-Spong, M., & Gross, C. R. (2013). Mindfulness: a systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patient-reported outcome (PRO). Quality of Life Research, 22, 2639–2659. CrossRefPubMed Park, T., Reilly-Spong, M., & Gross, C. R. (2013). Mindfulness: a systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patient-reported outcome (PRO). Quality of Life Research, 22, 2639–2659. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Quaglia, J. T., Braun, S. E., Freeman, S. P., McDaniel, M. A., & Brown, K. W. (2016). Meta-analytic evidence for effects of mindfulness training on dimensions of self-reported dispositional mindfulness. Psychological Assessment, 28, 803–818. CrossRefPubMed Quaglia, J. T., Braun, S. E., Freeman, S. P., McDaniel, M. A., & Brown, K. W. (2016). Meta-analytic evidence for effects of mindfulness training on dimensions of self-reported dispositional mindfulness. Psychological Assessment, 28, 803–818. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Reise, S. P., Ainsworth, A. T., & Haviland, M. G. (2005). Item response theory: fundamentals, applications, and promise in psychological research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 95–101. CrossRef Reise, S. P., Ainsworth, A. T., & Haviland, M. G. (2005). Item response theory: fundamentals, applications, and promise in psychological research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 95–101. CrossRef
go back to reference Samejima, F. (1969). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores. Psychometrika Monograph Supplement, No. 17. Samejima, F. (1969). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores. Psychometrika Monograph Supplement, No. 17.
go back to reference Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4, 3–17. CrossRef Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4, 3–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Shorey, R. C., Brasfield, H., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. L. (2014). Differences in trait mindfulness across mental health symptoms among adults in substance abuse treatment. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 595–600. CrossRef Shorey, R. C., Brasfield, H., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. L. (2014). Differences in trait mindfulness across mental health symptoms among adults in substance abuse treatment. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 595–600. CrossRef
go back to reference Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Anderson, K. G. (2000). On the sins of short-form development. Psychological Assessment, 12, 102–111. CrossRefPubMed Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Anderson, K. G. (2000). On the sins of short-form development. Psychological Assessment, 12, 102–111. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Thissen, D., & Wainer, H. (2001). Test Scoring. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties. CrossRef Thissen, D., & Wainer, H. (2001). Test Scoring. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associaties. CrossRef
go back to reference Tran, U. S., Glück, T. M., & Nader, I. W. (2013). Investigating the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ): construction of a short form and evidence of a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 951–965. CrossRefPubMed Tran, U. S., Glück, T. M., & Nader, I. W. (2013). Investigating the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ): construction of a short form and evidence of a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 951–965. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 805–810. CrossRef van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 805–810. CrossRef
go back to reference van Dam, N. T., Hobkirk, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., & Earleywine, M. (2012). Mind your words: positive and negative items create method effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Assessment, 19, 198–204. CrossRefPubMed van Dam, N. T., Hobkirk, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., & Earleywine, M. (2012). Mind your words: positive and negative items create method effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Assessment, 19, 198–204. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., et al. (2018). Mind the hype: a critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 36–61. CrossRefPubMed van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., et al. (2018). Mind the hype: a critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 36–61. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Veehof, M. M., ten Klooster, P. M., Taal, E., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 1045–1054. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Veehof, M. M., ten Klooster, P. M., Taal, E., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 1045–1054. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
Item Response Theory Analysis of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Its Short Forms
Auteurs
William E. Pelham III
Oscar Gonzalez
Stephen A. Metcalf
Cady L. Whicker
Emily A. Scherer
Katie Witkiewitz
Lisa A. Marsch
David P. Mackinnon
Publicatiedatum
02-03-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 8/2019
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01105-x