Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

07-01-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Is Self-Compassion Protective Among Sexual- and Gender-Minority Adolescents Across Racial Groups?

Auteurs: Abra J. Vigna, Julie Poehlmann-Tynan, Brian W. Koenig

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

Sexual- and/or gender-minority (SGM) youth report rates of suicidality, depression, and anxiety that are two to three times greater than those of their sexual- and gender-majority peers. Mounting evidence suggests that self-compassion can moderate the impact of stress on anxiety, depression, and suicidality. However, the potential limitations of self-compassion in overcoming adversity associated with minority status has not yet been investigated among youth with multiply marginalized identities (i.e., young people who find themselves at the intersection of more than one stigmatized group).

Methods

Informed by the minority stress hypothesis and intersectionality theory and using models of moderated moderation as well as group mean and proportion comparisons, this secondary data analysis (n = 1572) compared buffering effects of self-compassion across youth experiencing varying degrees of marginalization.

Results

In this study, although white sexual- and/or gender-minority adolescents reported higher rates of general peer victimization and anxiety than did counterparts of color, and to a moderate effect (Hedges’ g = .31 and .30, respectively), results of the Pearson’s chi-squared tests affirmed that sexual- and/or gender-minority students of color reported two to three times the frequency of exposure to structural discrimination. Results of the conditional process analysis suggest that the distinction across race within SGM status appeared in how self-compassion moderated the impact of identity on depressive symptoms compared with the reference group (i.e., white sexual- and gender-majority students). We did not find significant differences in how self-compassion moderated the relationship between sexual identity and depressive symptoms across racial groups.

Conclusions

There is evidence to suggest that the relationship between self-compassion and mental health may differ according to degree of exposure to structural discrimination.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Aberson, C. (2002). Interpreting null results: Improving presentation and conclusions with confidence intervals. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis, 1(3), 36-42. Aberson, C. (2002). Interpreting null results: Improving presentation and conclusions with confidence intervals. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis, 1(3), 36-42.
go back to reference Andersen, M. L., & Collins, P. H. (2010). Why race, class, and gender still matter. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (7th ed., pp. 1–16). Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth. Andersen, M. L., & Collins, P. H. (2010). Why race, class, and gender still matter. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (7th ed., pp. 1–16). Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth.
go back to reference Bluth, K., Gaylord, S. A., Campo, R. A., Mullarkey, M. C., & Hobbs, L. (2016a). Making friends with yourself: A mixed methods pilot study of a mindful self-compassion program for adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(2), 479–492.PubMed Bluth, K., Gaylord, S. A., Campo, R. A., Mullarkey, M. C., & Hobbs, L. (2016a). Making friends with yourself: A mixed methods pilot study of a mindful self-compassion program for adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(2), 479–492.PubMed
go back to reference Bluth, K., Roberson, P. N., Gaylord, S. A., Faurot, K. R., Grewen, K. M., Arzon, S., & Girdler, S. S. (2016b). Does self-compassion protect adolescents from stress? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(4), 1098–1109.PubMed Bluth, K., Roberson, P. N., Gaylord, S. A., Faurot, K. R., Grewen, K. M., Arzon, S., & Girdler, S. S. (2016b). Does self-compassion protect adolescents from stress? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(4), 1098–1109.PubMed
go back to reference Braveman, P. A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., LaVeist, T., Borrell, L. N., Manderscheid, R., & Troutman, A. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(S1), S149–S155.PubMedPubMedCentral Braveman, P. A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., LaVeist, T., Borrell, L. N., Manderscheid, R., & Troutman, A. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(S1), S149–S155.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Breines, J. G., McInnis, C. M., Kuras, Y., Thoma, M. V., Gianferante, D., Hanlin, L., & Chen, & Rohleder, N. (2015). Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress. Self and Identity, 14(4), 390–402. Breines, J. G., McInnis, C. M., Kuras, Y., Thoma, M. V., Gianferante, D., Hanlin, L., & Chen, & Rohleder, N. (2015). Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress. Self and Identity, 14(4), 390–402.
go back to reference Breslow, A. S., Brewster, M. E., Velez, B. L., Wong, S., Geiger, E., & Soderstrom, B. (2015). Resilience and collective action: Exploring buffers against minority stress for transgender individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 253–265. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd000011.CrossRef Breslow, A. S., Brewster, M. E., Velez, B. L., Wong, S., Geiger, E., & Soderstrom, B. (2015). Resilience and collective action: Exploring buffers against minority stress for transgender individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 253–265. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​sgd000011.CrossRef
go back to reference Brondolo, E., Thompson, S., Brady, N., Appel, R., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., & Sweeney, M. (2005). The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample. Ethnicity and Disease, 15(4), S5–S19.PubMed Brondolo, E., Thompson, S., Brady, N., Appel, R., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., & Sweeney, M. (2005). The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample. Ethnicity and Disease, 15(4), S5–S19.PubMed
go back to reference Brooks, V. R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Brooks, V. R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–396. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–396.
go back to reference Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Cyrus, K. (2017). Multiple minorities as multiply marginalized: Applying the minority stress theory to LGBTQ people of color. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 21(3), 194–202. Cyrus, K. (2017). Multiple minorities as multiply marginalized: Applying the minority stress theory to LGBTQ people of color. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 21(3), 194–202.
go back to reference Darlington, R. B., & Hayes, A. F. (2017). Regression analysis and linear models: Concepts, applications, and implementation. New York: The Guilford Press. Darlington, R. B., & Hayes, A. F. (2017). Regression analysis and linear models: Concepts, applications, and implementation. New York: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 43–51.PubMed Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 43–51.PubMed
go back to reference Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 82, 1–10.PubMed Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 82, 1–10.PubMed
go back to reference Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2-3), 123–142. Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2-3), 123–142.
go back to reference Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202–216. Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202–216.
go back to reference Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.PubMed Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.PubMed
go back to reference Galla, B. M. (2016). Within-person changes in mindfulness and self-compassion predict enhanced emotional well-being in healthy, but stressed adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 49, 204–217.PubMed Galla, B. M. (2016). Within-person changes in mindfulness and self-compassion predict enhanced emotional well-being in healthy, but stressed adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 49, 204–217.PubMed
go back to reference Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 813–821.PubMedPubMedCentral Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 813–821.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2016). Stigma and minority stress as social determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth:research evidence and clinical implications. Pediatric Clinics, 63(6), 985–997.PubMed Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2016). Stigma and minority stress as social determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth:research evidence and clinical implications. Pediatric Clinics, 63(6), 985–997.PubMed
go back to reference Hayes, A. F., & Montoya, A. K. (2017). A tutorial on testing, visualizing, and probing an interaction involving a multicategorical variable in linear regression analysis. Communication Methods and Measures, 11(1), 1–30. Hayes, A. F., & Montoya, A. K. (2017). A tutorial on testing, visualizing, and probing an interaction involving a multicategorical variable in linear regression analysis. Communication Methods and Measures, 11(1), 1–30.
go back to reference Hedges, L. V., & Okin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press. Hedges, L. V., & Okin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press.
go back to reference Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63(4), 905–925. Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63(4), 905–925.
go back to reference Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25(6), 881–919. Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25(6), 881–919.
go back to reference King, M., Semelyn, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). Mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people: A systematic review of the literature. London: National Institute for Mental Health England. King, M., Semelyn, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). Mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people: A systematic review of the literature. London: National Institute for Mental Health England.
go back to reference Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325.PubMed Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325.PubMed
go back to reference Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2009). An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: The PHQ–4. Psychosomatics, 50(6), 613–621.PubMed Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2009). An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: The PHQ–4. Psychosomatics, 50(6), 613–621.PubMed
go back to reference LeVasseur, M. T., Kelvin, E. A., & Grosskopf, N. A. (2013). Intersecting identities and the association between bullying and suicide attempt among New York City youths: Results from the 2009 New York City youth risk behavior survey. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1082–1089.PubMedPubMedCentral LeVasseur, M. T., Kelvin, E. A., & Grosskopf, N. A. (2013). Intersecting identities and the association between bullying and suicide attempt among New York City youths: Results from the 2009 New York City youth risk behavior survey. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1082–1089.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Löwe, B., Wahl, I., Rose, M., Spitzer, C., Glaesmer, H., Wingenfeld, K., et al. (2010). A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(1-2), 86–95.PubMed Löwe, B., Wahl, I., Rose, M., Spitzer, C., Glaesmer, H., Wingenfeld, K., et al. (2010). A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(1-2), 86–95.PubMed
go back to reference MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 545–552.PubMed MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 545–552.PubMed
go back to reference Malat, J., Mayorgo-Gallo, S., & Williams, D. (2018). The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA. Social Science and Medicine, 199, 148–156.PubMed Malat, J., Mayorgo-Gallo, S., & Williams, D. (2018). The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA. Social Science and Medicine, 199, 148–156.PubMed
go back to reference Miller, J. B., & Stiver, I. P. (1997). The healing connection: How women form relationships in therapy and in life. Boston, M.A: Beacon Press. Miller, J. B., & Stiver, I. P. (1997). The healing connection: How women form relationships in therapy and in life. Boston, M.A: Beacon Press.
go back to reference Moradi, B., Wiseman, M. C., DeBlaere, C., Goodman, M. B., Sarkees, A., Brewster, M. E., & Huang, Y. (2010). LGB of color and white individuals’ perceptions of heterosexist stigma, internalized homophobia, and outness: Comparisons of levels and links. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(3), 397–424. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000009335263.CrossRef Moradi, B., Wiseman, M. C., DeBlaere, C., Goodman, M. B., Sarkees, A., Brewster, M. E., & Huang, Y. (2010). LGB of color and white individuals’ perceptions of heterosexist stigma, internalized homophobia, and outness: Comparisons of levels and links. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(3), 397–424. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​0011000009335263​.CrossRef
go back to reference Mustanski, B., Newcomb, M. E., & Garofalo, R. (2011). Mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A developmental resiliency perspective. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 23(2), 204–225.PubMed Mustanski, B., Newcomb, M. E., & Garofalo, R. (2011). Mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A developmental resiliency perspective. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 23(2), 204–225.PubMed
go back to reference Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1019–1029.PubMed Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1019–1029.PubMed
go back to reference O’Shaughnessy, M., Russell, S. T., Heck, K., Calhoun, C., & Laub, C. (2004). Safe place to learn: Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer. San Francisco: California Safe Schools Coalition. O’Shaughnessy, M., Russell, S. T., Heck, K., Calhoun, C., & Laub, C. (2004). Safe place to learn: Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer. San Francisco: California Safe Schools Coalition.
go back to reference Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Eddy, J. M. (2019). A research and intervention agenda for children with incarcerated parents and their families. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann-Tynan (eds.), Handbook on children with incarcerated parents (pp. 353–371). New York, NY: Springer. Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Eddy, J. M. (2019). A research and intervention agenda for children with incarcerated parents and their families. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann-Tynan (eds.),  Handbook on children with incarcerated parents (pp. 353–371). New York, NY: Springer.
go back to reference Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: The importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 597.PubMed Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: The importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 597.PubMed
go back to reference Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K. D., & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the self-compassion scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(3), 250–255. Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K. D., & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the self-compassion scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(3), 250–255.
go back to reference Reisner, S. L., Vetters, R., Leclerc, M., Zaslow, S., Wolfrum, S., Shumer, D., & Mimiaga, M. J. (2015b). Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 56(3), 274–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.264.CrossRef Reisner, S. L., Vetters, R., Leclerc, M., Zaslow, S., Wolfrum, S., Shumer, D., & Mimiaga, M. J. (2015b). Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 56(3), 274–279. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jadohealth.​2014.​10.​264.CrossRef
go back to reference Robinson-Cimpian, J. P. (2014). Inaccurate estimation of disparities due to mischievous responders. Educational Researcher, 43(4), 171–185. Robinson-Cimpian, J. P. (2014). Inaccurate estimation of disparities due to mischievous responders. Educational Researcher, 43(4), 171–185.
go back to reference Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213.PubMed Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213.PubMed
go back to reference Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2012). Social dominance theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (p. 418–438). Thousand Okas, CA: Sage. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2012). Social dominance theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (p.  418–438). Thousand Okas, CA: Sage. 
go back to reference SPSS, I. B. M. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 23.0. New York: IBM Corp. SPSS, I. B. M. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 23.0. New York: IBM Corp.
go back to reference Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 187–196.PubMed Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 187–196.PubMed
go back to reference Ungar, M. (2003). Qualitative contributions to resilience research. Qualitative Social Work, 2(1), 85–102. Ungar, M. (2003). Qualitative contributions to resilience research. Qualitative Social Work, 2(1), 85–102.
go back to reference van Beusekom, G. V. B., Bos, M. W., Overbeek, G., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2015). Same-sex attraction, gender nonconformity, and mental health: The protective role of parental acceptance. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd000011.CrossRef van Beusekom, G. V. B., Bos, M. W., Overbeek, G., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2015). Same-sex attraction, gender nonconformity, and mental health: The protective role of parental acceptance. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 307–312. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​sgd000011.CrossRef
go back to reference Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2013). Race to equity: A baseline report on the state of racial disparities in Dane County. Madison: Author Retrieved from www.wccf.org. Accessed 10 Oct 2019. Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2013). Race to equity: A baseline report on the state of racial disparities in Dane County. Madison: Author Retrieved from www.​wccf.​org. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.
Metagegevens
Titel
Is Self-Compassion Protective Among Sexual- and Gender-Minority Adolescents Across Racial Groups?
Auteurs
Abra J. Vigna
Julie Poehlmann-Tynan
Brian W. Koenig
Publicatiedatum
07-01-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2020
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01294-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2020

Mindfulness 3/2020 Naar de uitgave

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Dying Before You Die