Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully’s anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49 % female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49 % female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Badiuk, B. B. (2006). Cyberbullying in the global village: The worldwide emergence of high-tech as a weapon for bullies. In A. Green (Ed.), Education students’ anthology (Vol. 9) (pp. 12–16). Winnipeg, MB: Faculty of Education.
Bauman, S. (2009). Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: An exploratory study. Journal of Early Adolescence. Retrieved February 02, 2012, from http://jea.sagepub.com/content/early/2009/12/09/0272431609350927.
Blake, P., & Louw, J. (2010). Exploring high school learners’ perceptions of bullying. Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 22(2), 111–118. CrossRef
Campbell, M. (2005). Cyber-bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 15(1), 68–76. CrossRef
Craig, W., & Pepler, D. (1997). Observations of bullying and victimization in the schoolyard. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 13, 41–50. CrossRef
Craig, W., Pepler, D., & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and the classroom. School Psychology International, 21, 22–36. CrossRef
Dooley, J. J., Pyzalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182–188. CrossRef
Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10, 512–527. CrossRef
Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 22–30. CrossRef
Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber bullying: Bullying in the digital age. Malden, MA: Blackwell. CrossRef
Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Cross, D. (2012). Research into cyberbullying: Context. In Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives (pp. 3–12). Oxford: Blackwell. CrossRef
Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F., & Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: Can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation? Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 17(3), 403–420. CrossRef
Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Frisén, A., Berne, S., Ortega, R., et al. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: A comparison across six European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9), 455–463.
Mishna, F., Saini, M., & Solomon, S. (2009). Ongoing and online: Children and youth’s perceptions of cyber bullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(12), 1222–1228. CrossRef
Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2003). Victimization of youths on the Internet. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 8(1/2), 1–39.
Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E. (2010). Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviors and definition in three European countries. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 129–142. CrossRef
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying in schools. What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell.
Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148–169. CrossRef
Perren, S., & Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, E. (2012). Cyberbullying and traditional bullying in adolescence: Differential roles of moral disengagement, moral emotions, and moral values. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2), 195–209. CrossRef
Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Victims and their defenders: A dyadic approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 144–151. CrossRef
Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2010). Development, evaluation, and diffusion of a national antibullying program, KiVa. In B. Doll, W. Pfohl, & J. Yoon (Eds.), Handbook of youth prevention science (pp. 238–252). New York: Routledge.
Salmivalli, C., Voeten, M., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). Bystanders matter: Associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 68–676.
Seiffge-Krenke, I., & Klessinger, N. (2000). Long-term effects of avoidant coping on adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 617–630. CrossRef
Smith, P. K. (2011). Cyberbullying and cyber aggression. In S. R. Jimerson, A. B. Nickerson, M. J. Mayer, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: International research and practice. New York: Routledge.
Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippet, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry, 49, 376–385. CrossRef
Smith, P. K., & Slonje, R. (2010). Cyberbullying: the nature and extent of a new kind of bullying, in and out of school. In S. Jimerson, S. Swearer, & D. Espelage (Eds.), The international handbook of school bullying (pp. 249–262). New York: Routledge.
Spears, B., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens: Insights into the human dimension of covert and cyberbullying. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217, 189–196. CrossRef
Sticca, F., Ruggieri, S., Alsaker, F. D., & Perren, S. (in press). Longitudinal risk factors for cyberbullying in adolescence. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology.
Tokunaga, R. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 277–287. CrossRef
Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 499–503. CrossRef
Willemse, I., Waller, G., & Süss, D. (2010). JAMES— Jugend. Aktivitäten, Medien— Erhebung Schweiz. Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften, Zürich.
- Is Cyberbullying Worse than Traditional Bullying? Examining the Differential Roles of Medium, Publicity, and Anonymity for the Perceived Severity of Bullying
- Springer US