Parental factors such as control, rejection, and inconsistency have been reported as associated with psychological maladjustment. The papers in this Special Section are based on a multi-national study examining the association between these parental factors and adolescents’ psychological disorders in nine western and eastern countries, differing in family connectedness. Questionnaires assessing these factors were administered to 2,884 male and female adolescents. In this paper we discuss the parental factors and describe the methodology. We hypothesize that parental factors, family connectedness, and the association between these factors and adolescents’ mental health differ across cultures. In the papers that follow, we present the results and discuss their implications.