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01-12-2014 | Research | Uitgave 1/2014 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2014

Intra-observer reliability for measuring first and second toe and metatarsal protrusion distance using palpation-based tests: a test-retest study

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2014
Auteurs:
Carmen-Belén Martínez-Cepa, Juan-Carlos Zuil-Escobar, Raquel Chillón-Martínez, José-Jesús Jiménez-Rejano, Inmaculada-Concepción Palomo-Toucedo
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s13047-014-0037-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

CBM conceived of the study, was responsible for the design and data acquisition, contributed to the analyses and drafted the original manuscript. JZ contributed to the design, analysis and interpretation of data and the revision of the manuscript. JJ carried out the statistical analyses, contributed to the interpretation of data and the revision of the manuscript. RC and IP made substantial contributions to the drafting and revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Measurement of first and second metatarsal and toe protrusion is frequently used to explain foot problems using x-rays, osteological measurements or palpation-based tests. Length differences could be related to the appearance of problems in the foot. A test-retest design was conducted in order to establish the intra-rater reliability of three palpation-based tests.

Methods

202 feet of physical therapy students and teachers of the CEU San Pablo University of Madrid, 39 men and 62 women, were measured using three different tests. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15.0. Mean, SD and 95% CI were calculated for each variable. A normal distribution of quantitative data was assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The test-retest intra-rater reliability was assessed using an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The Standard Error Mean (SEM) and the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were also obtained.

Results

All the ICC values showed a high degree of reliability (Test 1 = 0.97, Test 2 = 0.86 and Test 3 = 0.88) as did the SEM (Test 1 = 0.07, Test 2 = 0.10 and Test 3 = 0.11) and the MDC (Test 1 = 0.21, Test 2 = 0.30 and Test 3 = 0.31).

Conclusions

Reliability of measuring first and second metatarsal and toe protrusion using the three palpation-based tests showed a high degree of reliability.

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Extra materiaal
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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Authors’ original file for figure 4
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Authors’ original file for figure 5
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Literatuur
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