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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 4/2019

03-12-2018

Interrelations among Biologically Relevant Personality Traits, Emotion Regulation Strategies, and Clinical Symptoms

Auteurs: Emily R. Perkins, Karolina Sörman, Katherine A. McDermott, Christopher J. Patrick

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 4/2019

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Abstract

Biologically relevant personality traits of weak inhibitory control (disinhibition) and threat sensitivity confer vulnerability to various clinical problems. Difficulties with emotion regulation have also been studied extensively in relation to risk for and maintenance of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear how emotion regulation strategies interface with dispositional vulnerabilities in affecting clinical symptomatology. The current study provided an initial examination of the roles of disinhibition, threat sensitivity, and use of key emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression) in the occurrence of distress-related symptoms (i.e., depressivity, anxiousness, and borderline personality features). Analyses revealed that trait disinhibition and lowered use of cognitive reappraisal were related to each form of distress symptomatology, with the predictive relationship for disinhibition accounting entirely for that of reappraisal. This finding suggests that deficient top-down control capacity (i.e., disinhibition) is integral to failures in the use of an adaptive but cognitively demanding regulation strategy (i.e., reappraisal). By contrast, threat sensitivity was related both to anxiousness and use of expressive suppression, with the latter two variables unrelated to one another. Anxious individuals may avoid emotionally evocative situations, negating the downstream need to engage in the maladaptive strategy of expressive suppression. Despite certain study limitations (a cross-sectional, self-report design; modest sample size), the current study yielded evidence in line with study hypotheses, indicating a pivotal role for dispositional traits in associations between cognitive-behavioral processes and clinical problems.
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1
Importantly, the item content of this scale reflects fear vs. fearlessness in relation to stressors, risk situations, and social situations; it was designed to index the biologically relevant trait of threat sensitivity in the domain of self-report, through reference to an established measure of physiological defensive reactivity (i.e., startle-blink potentiation; see Kramer et al. 2012). As such, it differs considerably from items included in anxiety scales such as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (see below), which focus on the general experience of distress and perceived anxiousness with specific referents.
 
2
Given Nelson and colleagues’ (2016) finding of a disinhibition by threat sensitivity interaction in predicting symptoms of distress disorders (including depression and generalized anxiety disorder, analogous to our depressivity and anxiousness variables), we performed supplemental analyses to test for predictive effects of this interaction. In regression models for each clinical variable that included disinhibition, threat sensitivity, and their interaction as predictors, no interaction effects emerged as significant.
 
3
Given the small sample, post-hoc power analyses were performed using G*Power 3.1 (Faul et al. 2009) to ascertain whether the sample (N = 59 to 62) was sufficient to detect the hypothesized effects. Power to detect each zero-order correlation in this sample at α = .05 exceeded .800, except for the smaller observed correlation between expressive suppression and anxiousness (r = .160, power = .334). Power to detect the hypothesized results (partial r2 for the relevant trait predictor; Faul et al. 2009) exceeded .900.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Interrelations among Biologically Relevant Personality Traits, Emotion Regulation Strategies, and Clinical Symptoms
Auteurs
Emily R. Perkins
Karolina Sörman
Katherine A. McDermott
Christopher J. Patrick
Publicatiedatum
03-12-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 4/2019
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-018-9709-z