Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2009

01-08-2009 | Original Article

Interpretation in Social Anxiety: When Meaning Precedes Ambiguity

Auteurs: Courtney Beard, Nader Amir

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 4/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative beliefs influence socially anxious individuals’ interpretation of ambiguous social cues. However, paradigms used to assess interpretation bias in social anxiety have not addressed such beliefs. Furthermore, studies have assessed interpretation with either self-report or reaction time paradigms, rather than using both methods. In the current study, socially anxious and non-anxious participants completed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the WSAP, participants decide whether or not a word (implying a threat or benign interpretation) is related to an ambiguous sentence. Threat or benign meanings preceded the ambiguity in order to examine the influence of positive and negative beliefs on interpretation of ambiguous information. The WSAP results in two types of interpretation indices: (1) response latency to make relatedness decisions for threat and benign interpretations, and (2) endorsement rates of the relatedness of threat and benign interpretations to ambiguous sentences. Results revealed a threat interpretation bias and a lack of a benign interpretation bias in both reaction time and self-report data. Threat and benign biases were not strongly correlated. These findings support the distinction between threat and benign interpretation biases.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Studies differ in their terms to describe types of interpretations (e.g., positive, negative, benign, non-threat, threat). To remain consistent, we will refer mostly to benign (includes neutral and positive) and threat interpretations from this point.
 
2
More examples of the materials are available from the first author upon request.
 
3
Due to the nature of the WSAP paradigm, participants have varying numbers of reaction times for each trial type. The number of reaction times per trial type was the following: endorsement of threat (M = 10, SD = 6, range = 1–27), rejection of threat (M = 11, SD = 7, range = 5–34), endorsement of benign (M = 11, SD = 7, range = 6–35), and rejection of benign (M = 8, SD = 5, range = 1–27).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Amir, N., Beard, C., & Przeworksi, A. (2005b). Resolving ambiguity: The Effect of experience on interpretation of ambiguous events in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 402–408. PubMedCrossRef Amir, N., Beard, C., & Przeworksi, A. (2005b). Resolving ambiguity: The Effect of experience on interpretation of ambiguous events in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 402–408. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Manual for Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Manual for Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Clark, D., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneider (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press. Clark, D., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneider (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Franklin, M., Huppert, J., Langner, R., Leiberg, S., & Foa, E. (2005). Interpretation bias: A comparison of treated social phobics, untreated social phobics, and controls. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 289–300. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-2412-8. CrossRef Franklin, M., Huppert, J., Langner, R., Leiberg, S., & Foa, E. (2005). Interpretation bias: A comparison of treated social phobics, untreated social phobics, and controls. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 289–300. doi: 10.​1007/​s10608-005-2412-8. CrossRef
go back to reference Gillis, M. M., Haaga, D. A. F., & Ford, G. T. (1995). Normative values for the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Fear Questionnaire, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 7, 450–455. doi: 10.​1037/​1040-3590.​7.​4.​450. CrossRef Gillis, M. M., Haaga, D. A. F., & Ford, G. T. (1995). Normative values for the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Fear Questionnaire, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 7, 450–455. doi: 10.​1037/​1040-3590.​7.​4.​450. CrossRef
go back to reference Herbert, J., Bellack, A., & Hope, D. (1991). Concurrent validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 357–368. doi: 10.​1007/​BF00960447. CrossRef Herbert, J., Bellack, A., & Hope, D. (1991). Concurrent validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 357–368. doi: 10.​1007/​BF00960447. CrossRef
go back to reference Richards, A. & French, C. C. (1992). An anxiety-related bias in semantic activation when processing threat/neutral homographs. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 503–525. Richards, A. & French, C. C. (1992). An anxiety-related bias in semantic activation when processing threat/neutral homographs. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 503–525.
go back to reference Simpson, G. B., & Kang, H. (1994). Inhibitory processes in the recognition of homograph meanings. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 359–382). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Simpson, G. B., & Kang, H. (1994). Inhibitory processes in the recognition of homograph meanings. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 359–382). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
go back to reference Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.
go back to reference Turner, S. M., Stanley, M. A., Beidel, D. C., & Bond, L. (1989b). The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: Construct validity. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33, 448–457. Turner, S. M., Stanley, M. A., Beidel, D. C., & Bond, L. (1989b). The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: Construct validity. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33, 448–457.
go back to reference Voncken, M., & Bögels, S. (2006). Changing interpretation and judgmental biases in Social Phobia: A pilot study of a short, highly structured cognitive treatment. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 20, 59–73. doi: 10.​1891/​jcop.​20.​1.​59. CrossRef Voncken, M., & Bögels, S. (2006). Changing interpretation and judgmental biases in Social Phobia: A pilot study of a short, highly structured cognitive treatment. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 20, 59–73. doi: 10.​1891/​jcop.​20.​1.​59. CrossRef
go back to reference Voncken, M. J., Bögels, S. M., & Peeters, F. (2007). Specificity of interpretation and judgemental biases in social phobia versus depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory. Research and Practice, 80, 443–453. CrossRef Voncken, M. J., Bögels, S. M., & Peeters, F. (2007). Specificity of interpretation and judgemental biases in social phobia versus depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory. Research and Practice, 80, 443–453. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, E., MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Rutherford, E. (2006). The causal role of interpretive bias in anxiety reactivity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 103–111. PubMedCrossRef Wilson, E., MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Rutherford, E. (2006). The causal role of interpretive bias in anxiety reactivity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 103–111. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2007). Threat is in the eye of the beholder: Social anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguous facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 839–847. PubMedCrossRef Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2007). Threat is in the eye of the beholder: Social anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguous facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 839–847. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Interpretation in Social Anxiety: When Meaning Precedes Ambiguity
Auteurs
Courtney Beard
Nader Amir
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 4/2009
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9235-0

Andere artikelen Uitgave 4/2009

Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2009 Naar de uitgave