Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 6/2011

01-06-2011 | Empirical Research

Intergroup Contact and Evaluations of Race-Based Exclusion in Urban Minority Children and Adolescents

Auteurs: Martin D. Ruck, Henry Park, Melanie Killen, David S. Crystal

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 6/2011

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

There is a dearth of published research on the role of intergroup contact on urban US ethnic minority children’s and adolescents’ evaluations of racial exclusion. The current investigation examined these issues in a sample of low-income minority 4th, 7th, and 10th grade (N = 129, 60% female) African American and Latino/a students attending predominately racial and ethnic minority US urban public schools. Using individual interviews, participants were presented with scenarios depicting three contexts of interracial peer exclusion (lunch at school, a sleepover party, and a school dance). Novel findings were that intergroup contact was significantly related to low-income urban ethnic minority youth’s evaluations of the wrongfulness of race-based exclusion and their awareness of the use of stereotypes to justify racial exclusion. Further, significant interactions involving intergroup contact, context, age, and gender were also found. Findings illustrated the importance of intergroup contact for ethnic minority students and the complexity of ethnic minority children’s and adolescents’ judgments and decision-making about interracial peer exclusion.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aboud, F. E., & Fenwick, V. (1999). Exploring and evaluating school-based interventions to reduce prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 767–786. CrossRef Aboud, F. E., & Fenwick, V. (1999). Exploring and evaluating school-based interventions to reduce prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 767–786. CrossRef
go back to reference Aboud, F. E., & Joong, A. (2008). Intergroup name-calling and conditions for creating assertive bystanders. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 249–260). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aboud, F. E., & Joong, A. (2008). Intergroup name-calling and conditions for creating assertive bystanders. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 249–260). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley.
go back to reference Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 34, pp. 39–89). San Diego, CA: Elsevier. Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 34, pp. 39–89). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
go back to reference Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., et al. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843–856. PubMedCrossRef Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., et al. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843–856. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, C. S. (2008). Children’s perceptions of racial and ethnic discrimination: Differences across children and contexts. In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child (pp. 133–153). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Brown, C. S. (2008). Children’s perceptions of racial and ethnic discrimination: Differences across children and contexts. In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child (pp. 133–153). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Brown, C. S., & Bigler, R. S. (2005). Children’s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development, 76(3), 533–553. CrossRef Brown, C. S., & Bigler, R. S. (2005). Children’s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development, 76(3), 533–553. CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (2005). An integrative theory of intergroup contact. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 255–343. CrossRef Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (2005). An integrative theory of intergroup contact. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 255–343. CrossRef
go back to reference Crystal, D., Killen, M., & Ruck, M. D. (2008). It’s who you know that counts: Intergroup contact and judgments about race-based exclusion. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 51–70. CrossRef Crystal, D., Killen, M., & Ruck, M. D. (2008). It’s who you know that counts: Intergroup contact and judgments about race-based exclusion. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 51–70. CrossRef
go back to reference Edmonds, C., & Killen, M. (2009). Do adolescents’ perceptions of parental racial attitudes relate to their intergroup contact and cross-race relationships? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12(1), 5–21. CrossRef Edmonds, C., & Killen, M. (2009). Do adolescents’ perceptions of parental racial attitudes relate to their intergroup contact and cross-race relationships? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12(1), 5–21. CrossRef
go back to reference Enesco, I., Guerrero, S., Callejas, C., & Solbes, I. (2008). Intergroup attitudes and reasoning about social exclusion in majority children in Spain. In S. R. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 105–125). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Enesco, I., Guerrero, S., Callejas, C., & Solbes, I. (2008). Intergroup attitudes and reasoning about social exclusion in majority children in Spain. In S. R. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 105–125). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Feddes, A. R., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s interethnic attitudes: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 80(2), 377–390. PubMedCrossRef Feddes, A. R., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s interethnic attitudes: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 80(2), 377–390. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fisher, C. B., Jackson, J. F., & Villaruel, F. A. (1998). The study of African American and Latin children and youth. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 1145–1507). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Fisher, C. B., Jackson, J. F., & Villaruel, F. A. (1998). The study of African American and Latin children and youth. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 1145–1507). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Fisher, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(6), 679–695. CrossRef Fisher, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(6), 679–695. CrossRef
go back to reference Frankenberg, E., & Orfield, G. (Eds.). (2007). Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in America’s schools. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. Frankenberg, E., & Orfield, G. (Eds.). (2007). Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in America’s schools. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
go back to reference Garcia Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., et al. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. PubMedCrossRef Garcia Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., et al. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hughes, J. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2008). The impact of race on children’s occupational aspirations. In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child (pp. 397–423). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Hughes, J. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2008). The impact of race on children’s occupational aspirations. In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child (pp. 397–423). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Killen, M., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. D. (2007a). The social developmental benefits of intergroup contact among children and adolescents. In E. Frankenberg & G. Orfield (Eds.), Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in America’s schools. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. Killen, M., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. D. (2007a). The social developmental benefits of intergroup contact among children and adolescents. In E. Frankenberg & G. Orfield (Eds.), Lessons in integration: Realizing the promise of racial diversity in America’s schools. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
go back to reference Killen, M., Henning, A., Kelly, M. C., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. D. (2007b). Evaluations of interracial peer encounters by majority and minority U.S. children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 491–500. CrossRef Killen, M., Henning, A., Kelly, M. C., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. D. (2007b). Evaluations of interracial peer encounters by majority and minority U.S. children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 491–500. CrossRef
go back to reference Killen, M., Kelly, M. C., Richardson, C., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. (2010). European-American children’s and adolescents’ evaluations of interracial exclusion. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 283–300. CrossRef Killen, M., Kelly, M. C., Richardson, C., Crystal, D., & Ruck, M. (2010). European-American children’s and adolescents’ evaluations of interracial exclusion. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 283–300. CrossRef
go back to reference Killen, M., Lee-Kim, J., McGlothlin, H., & Stangor, C. (2002). How children and adolescents evaluate gender and racial exclusion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (Vol. 67, No. 4, Serial No. 271). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. Killen, M., Lee-Kim, J., McGlothlin, H., & Stangor, C. (2002). How children and adolescents evaluate gender and racial exclusion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (Vol. 67, No. 4, Serial No. 271). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
go back to reference Killen, M., Sinno, S., & Margie, N. G. (2007c). Children's experiences and judgments about group exclusion and inclusion. In R. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 173–218). New York, NY: Elsevier. Killen, M., Sinno, S., & Margie, N. G. (2007c). Children's experiences and judgments about group exclusion and inclusion. In R. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 173–218). New York, NY: Elsevier.
go back to reference Killen, M., & Stangor, C. (2001). Children’s reasoning about social inclusion and exclusion in gender and race peer group contexts. Child Development, 72, 174–186. PubMedCrossRef Killen, M., & Stangor, C. (2001). Children’s reasoning about social inclusion and exclusion in gender and race peer group contexts. Child Development, 72, 174–186. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kurlaender, M., & Yun, J. T. (2001). Is diversity a compelling educational interest? Evidence from Louisville. In G. Orfield (Ed.), Diversity challenged: Evidence on the impact of affirmative action (pp. 111–114). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Publishing Group. Kurlaender, M., & Yun, J. T. (2001). Is diversity a compelling educational interest? Evidence from Louisville. In G. Orfield (Ed.), Diversity challenged: Evidence on the impact of affirmative action (pp. 111–114). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Publishing Group.
go back to reference Lerner, R. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America’s youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. Lerner, R. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America’s youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.
go back to reference McKown, C. (2004). Age and ethnic variation in children’s thinking about the nature of racism. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 597–617. CrossRef McKown, C. (2004). Age and ethnic variation in children’s thinking about the nature of racism. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 597–617. CrossRef
go back to reference McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2003). The development and consequences of stereotype consciousness in middle childhood. Child Development, 74(2), 498–515. PubMedCrossRef McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2003). The development and consequences of stereotype consciousness in middle childhood. Child Development, 74(2), 498–515. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nesdale, D., Griffith, J., Durkin, K., & Maas, A. (2005). Empathy, group norms and children’s ethnic attitudes. Applied Developmental Science, 26(6), 623–637. Nesdale, D., Griffith, J., Durkin, K., & Maas, A. (2005). Empathy, group norms and children’s ethnic attitudes. Applied Developmental Science, 26(6), 623–637.
go back to reference Orfield, G. (Ed.). (2001). Diversity challenged: Evidence on the impact of affirmative action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Publishing Group. Orfield, G. (Ed.). (2001). Diversity challenged: Evidence on the impact of affirmative action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Publishing Group.
go back to reference Orfield, G., & Eaton, S. E. (1996). Dismantling desegregation: The quiet reversal of Brown vs. board of education. New York, NY: The New Press. Orfield, G., & Eaton, S. E. (1996). Dismantling desegregation: The quiet reversal of Brown vs. board of education. New York, NY: The New Press.
go back to reference Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents. Child Development, 77, 1403–1415. PubMedCrossRef Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents. Child Development, 77, 1403–1415. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pettigrew, T., & Tropp, L. (2005). Allports’ intergroup contact hypothesis: Its history and influence. In J. F. Dovido, P. Glick, & L. Rudman (Eds.), Reflecting on the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 262–277). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Pettigrew, T., & Tropp, L. (2005). Allports’ intergroup contact hypothesis: Its history and influence. In J. F. Dovido, P. Glick, & L. Rudman (Eds.), Reflecting on the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 262–277). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
go back to reference Pettigrew, T., & Tropp, L. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751–783. PubMedCrossRef Pettigrew, T., & Tropp, L. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751–783. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth and Society, 35, 420–451. CrossRef Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth and Society, 35, 420–451. CrossRef
go back to reference Sellers, R. M., Copeland-Linder, N., Martin, P., & Lewis, R. L. (2006). Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(2), 187–216. CrossRef Sellers, R. M., Copeland-Linder, N., Martin, P., & Lewis, R. L. (2006). Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(2), 187–216. CrossRef
go back to reference Simons, R. L., Murry, V., McLoyd, V., Lin, K., Cutrona, C., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity, and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: A multi-level analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 371–393. PubMedCrossRef Simons, R. L., Murry, V., McLoyd, V., Lin, K., Cutrona, C., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity, and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: A multi-level analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 371–393. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stephan, W. (1999). Reducing prejudice and stereotyping in schools. Multicultural education series. New York: Teachers College Press. Stephan, W. (1999). Reducing prejudice and stereotyping in schools. Multicultural education series. New York: Teachers College Press.
go back to reference Swim, J. K., & Stangor, C. (1998). Prejudice: The target's perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Swim, J. K., & Stangor, C. (1998). Prejudice: The target's perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
go back to reference Szalacha, L. A., Garcia Coll, C., Alarcon, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and Puerto Rican children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 141–155. PubMedCrossRef Szalacha, L. A., Garcia Coll, C., Alarcon, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and Puerto Rican children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 141–155. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tropp, L. R. (2006). Stigma and intergroup contact among members of minority and majority status groups. In S. Levin & C. van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and group inequality: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 171–191). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Tropp, L. R. (2006). Stigma and intergroup contact among members of minority and majority status groups. In S. Levin & C. van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and group inequality: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 171–191). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Tropp, L. R., & Pettigrew, T. F. (2005). Relationships between intergroup contact and prejudice among minority and majority status groups. Psychological Science, 16, 951–957. PubMedCrossRef Tropp, L. R., & Pettigrew, T. F. (2005). Relationships between intergroup contact and prejudice among minority and majority status groups. Psychological Science, 16, 951–957. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tropp, L. R., & Prenovost, M. A. (2008). The role of intergroup contact in predicting children’s interethnic attitudes: Evidence from meta-analytic and field studies. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 236–248). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Tropp, L. R., & Prenovost, M. A. (2008). The role of intergroup contact in predicting children’s interethnic attitudes: Evidence from meta-analytic and field studies. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 236–248). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Turner, R. N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2007). Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 369–388. PubMedCrossRef Turner, R. N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2007). Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 369–388. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Verkuyten, M. (2008). Multiculturalism and group evaluations among minority and majority groups. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 157–172). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Verkuyten, M. (2008). Multiculturalism and group evaluations among minority and majority groups. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 157–172). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Intergroup Contact and Evaluations of Race-Based Exclusion in Urban Minority Children and Adolescents
Auteurs
Martin D. Ruck
Henry Park
Melanie Killen
David S. Crystal
Publicatiedatum
01-06-2011
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 6/2011
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9600-z