Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

04-04-2019 | Original Article

Intelligence and working memory: evidence from administering the WAIS-IV to Italian adults and elderly

Auteurs: Erika Borella, Lina Pezzuti, Rossana De Beni, Cesare Cornoldi

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 6/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The present study took advantage of data collected on more than 2100 Italian adult and elderly individuals during the standardization of the WAIS-IV to examine the relationship between working memory (WM) components and intelligence, and how age affects this relationship. Administering the WAIS-IV enabled us to obtain five different measures for assessing different aspects of WM, and a measure of General Ability (GA) strongly loading on the g-factor. The main results were as follows: (1) age-related impairments in WM are substantial, and they are partly similar and partly different for the various WM measures; (2) the relationship between the WM measures and the General Ability Index (GAI) varies, becoming stronger when the active control required by the WM task is higher; (3) comparing the WM–GAI relationships between different age groups reveals some similar patterns, as well as some specific effects that depend on the WM task considered.
Literatuur
go back to reference Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Clarendon Press. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Clarendon Press.
go back to reference Balinsky, B. (1941). An analysis of the mental factors of various age groups from nine to sixty. Genetic Psychology Monographs,23, 191–234. Balinsky, B. (1941). An analysis of the mental factors of various age groups from nine to sixty. Genetic Psychology Monographs,23, 191–234.
go back to reference Bopp, K. L., & Verhaeghen, P. (2005). Aging and verbal memory span: A meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences,60B, 223–233.CrossRef Bopp, K. L., & Verhaeghen, P. (2005). Aging and verbal memory span: A meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences,60B, 223–233.CrossRef
go back to reference Borella, E., Carretti, B., & De Beni, R. (2008). Working memory and inhibition across the adult life-span. Acta Psychologica,128, 33–44.CrossRef Borella, E., Carretti, B., & De Beni, R. (2008). Working memory and inhibition across the adult life-span. Acta Psychologica,128, 33–44.CrossRef
go back to reference Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: A systematic reinterpretation. New York: Academic Press. Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: A systematic reinterpretation. New York: Academic Press.
go back to reference Conway, A. R. A., Getz, S. J., Macnamara, B., & Engel de Abreu, P. M. J. (2011). Working memory and fluid intelligence: A multi-mechanism view. In R. J. Sternberg & S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Conway, A. R. A., Getz, S. J., Macnamara, B., & Engel de Abreu, P. M. J. (2011). Working memory and fluid intelligence: A multi-mechanism view. In R. J. Sternberg & S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Cornoldi, C., & Oakhill, J. (1996). Reading comprehension difficulties. Mahwah: Erlbaum. Cornoldi, C., & Oakhill, J. (1996). Reading comprehension difficulties. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Cornoldi, C., & Vecchi, T. (2003). Visuo-spatial working memory and individual differences. Hove: Psychology Press. Cornoldi, C., & Vecchi, T. (2003). Visuo-spatial working memory and individual differences. Hove: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Craik, F. I. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (2008). Handbook of cognitive aging (3rd ed.). New York: Psychology Press. Craik, F. I. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (2008). Handbook of cognitive aging (3rd ed.). New York: Psychology Press.
go back to reference de Ribaupierre, A. (2001). Working memory and attentional processes across the lifespan. In P. Graf & N. Otha (Eds.), Lifespan development of human memory (pp. 59–80). Cambridge: MIT Press. de Ribaupierre, A. (2001). Working memory and attentional processes across the lifespan. In P. Graf & N. Otha (Eds.), Lifespan development of human memory (pp. 59–80). Cambridge: MIT Press.
go back to reference Flanagan, D. P., & Kaufman, S. (2004). Essentials of assessment with WISC-IV. New York: Wiley. Flanagan, D. P., & Kaufman, S. (2004). Essentials of assessment with WISC-IV. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Hofer, S. M., & Sliwinski, M. J. (2001). Understanding ageing: An evaluation of research designs for assessing the interdependence of ageing-related changes. Gerontology,47, 341–352.CrossRef Hofer, S. M., & Sliwinski, M. J. (2001). Understanding ageing: An evaluation of research designs for assessing the interdependence of ageing-related changes. Gerontology,47, 341–352.CrossRef
go back to reference Jumel, B. (2008). Guide clinique des tests chez l’enfant. Paris: Dunod. Jumel, B. (2008). Guide clinique des tests chez l’enfant. Paris: Dunod.
go back to reference Kaufmann, A. S. (1994). Intelligence testing with the WISC-III (p. 70). New York: Wiley. Kaufmann, A. S. (1994). Intelligence testing with the WISC-III (p. 70). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Li, S. C., Lindenberger, U., Hommel, B., Aschersleben, G., Prinz, W., & Baltes, P. B. (2004). Lifespan transformations in the couplings of mental abilities and underlying cognitive processes. Psychological Science,15, 155–163.CrossRef Li, S. C., Lindenberger, U., Hommel, B., Aschersleben, G., Prinz, W., & Baltes, P. B. (2004). Lifespan transformations in the couplings of mental abilities and underlying cognitive processes. Psychological Science,15, 155–163.CrossRef
go back to reference Li, S. C., & Schmiedek, F. (2002). Age is not necessarily aging: Another step towards understanding the ‘clocks’ that time aging. Gerontology,48, 5–12.CrossRef Li, S. C., & Schmiedek, F. (2002). Age is not necessarily aging: Another step towards understanding the ‘clocks’ that time aging. Gerontology,48, 5–12.CrossRef
go back to reference Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (1997). Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: Cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging,12(3), 410.CrossRef Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (1997). Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: Cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging,12(3), 410.CrossRef
go back to reference Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (1999). Toward unified theories of working memory: Emerging general consensus, unresolved theoretical issues, and future research directions. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 442–481). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (1999). Toward unified theories of working memory: Emerging general consensus, unresolved theoretical issues, and future research directions. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 442–481). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Myerson, J., Emery, L., White, D. A., & Hale, S. (2003). Effects of age, domain, and processing demands on memory span: Evidence for differential decline. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition,10, 20–27.CrossRef Myerson, J., Emery, L., White, D. A., & Hale, S. (2003). Effects of age, domain, and processing demands on memory span: Evidence for differential decline. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition,10, 20–27.CrossRef
go back to reference Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2013). WAIS-IV. Contributo alla taratura italiana (16–69) (WAIS-IV, Contribution to the Italian Standardization, ages 16–69). Firenze: Giunti OS. Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2013). WAIS-IV. Contributo alla taratura italiana (16–69) (WAIS-IV, Contribution to the Italian Standardization, ages 16–69). Firenze: Giunti OS.
go back to reference Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2014). L’indice di abilità generale della scala WISC-IV (The general ability index in the WISC-IV). Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo,XVIII(2), 301–310. Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2014). L’indice di abilità generale della scala WISC-IV (The general ability index in the WISC-IV). Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo,XVIII(2), 301–310.
go back to reference Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2015). WAIS-IV. Contributo alla taratura italiana (70–90 anni). (WAIS-IV, contribution to the Italian standardization, ages 16–69). Firenze: Giunti OS. Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2015). WAIS-IV. Contributo alla taratura italiana (70–90 anni). (WAIS-IV, contribution to the Italian standardization, ages 16–69). Firenze: Giunti OS.
go back to reference Orsini, A., Pezzuti, L., & Picone, L. (2011). WISC-IV. Contributo alla taratura Italiana. [WISC-IV Italian Edition]. Firenze: Giunti OS. Orsini, A., Pezzuti, L., & Picone, L. (2011). WISC-IV. Contributo alla taratura Italiana. [WISC-IV Italian Edition]. Firenze: Giunti OS.
go back to reference Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging,17, 299–320.CrossRef Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging,17, 299–320.CrossRef
go back to reference Pezzuti, L., Lauriola, M., Borella, E., De Beni, R., & Cornoldi, C. (2019). Working Memory and Processing Speed mediate the effect of age on a General Ability Construct: Evidence from the Italian WAIS-IV standardization sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 138(1), 298–304.CrossRef Pezzuti, L., Lauriola, M., Borella, E., De Beni, R., & Cornoldi, C. (2019). Working Memory and Processing Speed mediate the effect of age on a General Ability Construct: Evidence from the Italian WAIS-IV standardization sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 138(1), 298–304.CrossRef
go back to reference Raiford, S. E., Weiss, P. D. L. G., Rolfhus, P. D. E., & Coalson, P. D. D. (2005). General Ability Index. Hartcourt Assessment, Technical Report. Raiford, S. E., Weiss, P. D. L. G., Rolfhus, P. D. E., & Coalson, P. D. D. (2005). General Ability Index. Hartcourt Assessment, Technical Report.
go back to reference Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., Jonides, J., Smith, E., Hartley, A., Miller, A., Marshuetz, C., & Koeppe, R. (2000). Age differences in the frontal lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory revealed by PET. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,12, 174–187.CrossRef Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., Jonides, J., Smith, E., Hartley, A., Miller, A., Marshuetz, C., & Koeppe, R. (2000). Age differences in the frontal lateralization of verbal and spatial working memory revealed by PET. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,12, 174–187.CrossRef
go back to reference Robert, C., Borella, E., Fagot, D., Lecerf, T., & de Ribaupierre, A. (2009). Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Task. Memory & Cognition, 37(3), 336–345.CrossRef Robert, C., Borella, E., Fagot, D., Lecerf, T., & de Ribaupierre, A. (2009). Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Task. Memory & Cognition, 37(3), 336–345.CrossRef
go back to reference Saklofske, D. H., Prifitera, A., Weiss, L. G., Rolfhus, E., & Zhu, J. (2005). Clinical interpretation of the WISC-IV FSIQ and GAI. In A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss (Eds.), WISC-IV. Clinical use and interpretation. San Diego: Elsevier. Saklofske, D. H., Prifitera, A., Weiss, L. G., Rolfhus, E., & Zhu, J. (2005). Clinical interpretation of the WISC-IV FSIQ and GAI. In A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss (Eds.), WISC-IV. Clinical use and interpretation. San Diego: Elsevier.
go back to reference Salthouse, T. A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2010). Do the WAIS-IV tests measure the same aspects of cognitive functioning in adults under and over age 65? In L. G. Weiss, D. H. Saklofske, D. L. Coalson, & S. E. Raiford (Eds.), WAIS-IV clinical use and interpretation (pp. 217–235). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRef Salthouse, T. A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2010). Do the WAIS-IV tests measure the same aspects of cognitive functioning in adults under and over age 65? In L. G. Weiss, D. H. Saklofske, D. L. Coalson, & S. E. Raiford (Eds.), WAIS-IV clinical use and interpretation (pp. 217–235). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (2010). The Seattle Longitudinal Study of adult cognitive development. ISSBD Bulletin,57, 24–29.PubMedPubMedCentral Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (2010). The Seattle Longitudinal Study of adult cognitive development. ISSBD Bulletin,57, 24–29.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science,283(5408), 1657–1661.CrossRef Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science,283(5408), 1657–1661.CrossRef
go back to reference Swanson, H. L., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Learning disabilities as a working memory deficit. Issues in Education,7, 1–48. Swanson, H. L., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Learning disabilities as a working memory deficit. Issues in Education,7, 1–48.
go back to reference Vecchi, T., & Cornoldi, C. (1999). Passive storage and active manipulation in visuo-spatial working memory: Further evidence from the study of age differences. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology,11, 391–406.CrossRef Vecchi, T., & Cornoldi, C. (1999). Passive storage and active manipulation in visuo-spatial working memory: Further evidence from the study of age differences. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology,11, 391–406.CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children-fourth edition. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children-fourth edition. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale fourth edition: Technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio: Pearson. Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale fourth edition: Technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio: Pearson.
Metagegevens
Titel
Intelligence and working memory: evidence from administering the WAIS-IV to Italian adults and elderly
Auteurs
Erika Borella
Lina Pezzuti
Rossana De Beni
Cesare Cornoldi
Publicatiedatum
04-04-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 6/2020
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01173-7

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2020

Psychological Research 6/2020 Naar de uitgave