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Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 3/2022

15-01-2022 | Original Article

Initial Severity and Depressive Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Antidepressant Medications: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis

Auteurs: Jay C. Fournier, Nicholas R. Forand, Zheng Wang, Zhexuan Li, Satish Iyengar, Robert J. DeRubeis, Richard Shelton, Jay Amsterdam, Robin B. Jarrett, Jeffrey R. Vittengl, Zindel Segal, Sona Dimidjian, M. Tracie Shea, Keith S. Dobson, Steven D. Hollon

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 3/2022

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Abstract

Background

Baseline severity has emerged as a key predictor of acute response to treatments for depression. The goals of this individual patient data meta-analysis were to compare the relapse prevention effects of acute phase cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. acute phase antidepressant medications (ADM) either continued (-c) or discontinued (-d) and determine whether baseline depression severity moderated these effects.

Methods

We included all available relevant randomized trials of CBT versus ADM in adult outpatients with depression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine whether treatment condition, baseline severity, and additional characteristics were associated with relapse.

Results

Using individual participant data from 5 of 10 published trials (N = 341), CBT (HR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.26–0.57) and ADM-c (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.29–0.80) were superior to ADM-d in preventing relapse over 12 months but did not differ from each other (HR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.76–2.09). Baseline severity did not moderate these effects.

Conclusions

Regardless of a patient’s baseline symptom severity, CBT and ADM-c both prevent depressive relapse substantially better than medication discontinuation. Given the shorter duration of treatment and equivalent longer-term outcomes, treatment with CBT might be considered a first choice for adults with depression.

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1
It has become conventional to distinguish “relapse,” defined as the return of symptoms following remission, from “recurrence,” defined as a new episode following recovery (Frank, et al., 1991) But, the validity of precise criteria for differentiating between relapse and recurrence has not been well established, and it can be difficult in practice to determine when an individual has “recovered” from an index episode. Because we are interested in the effect of severity on symptom return at any point following the end of acute treatment, we do not make distinctions between relapse and recurrence in our analyses, using “relapse” as a universal term for the return of depressive symptoms following acute phase treatment.
 
2
Due to the expected small number of RCT’s comparing CBT to medications, the inclusion criteria were intentionally broad. For example, eight sessions is a relatively short and non-standard treatment length and a follow-up of only 6 months is relatively brief. All identified trials had longer durations of acute treatment (10–24 weeks) and longer follow-up (8 to 18 months) than the minimum criteria. Also, the inclusion criteria allowed no more than 5 booster sessions, however, of the included trials only one offered booster sessions and the maximum number offered was 3 (Hollon et al., 2005). There is a small inconsistency in the original registration between the inclusion criteria, which indicates that anyone receiving ADM who is then followed will be included, and the “comparison condition”, which mentions only those who received ADM acutely and were later withdrawn onto placebo. Given the small number of studies and given that our intention was to capture as many trials as possible, we use the stated inclusion criteria throughout and consider for the ADM-d group anyone who was withdrawn from ADM during follow-up.
 
3
We use the term “follow-up” to refer to the phase of each study that took place immediately following acute treatment. Some of the studies used other terms to label this phase, e.g., “continuation phase.” Three of the studies (Dobson et al., 2008; Hollon et al., 2005; Jarrett et al., 2000) terminated all continuation treatments at the end of this phase and continued to follow participants naturalistically for another year or more. Those data were not included in the current report as the arms of the naturalistic portions of those studies no longer matched the arms in the “follow-up” phase.
 
4
The non-significant difference between CBT and ADM-c represented a small effect (NNT = 16) and power to detect a difference of this magnitude was low in this sample. Conservatively, total samples of > 1800 would be needed to detect an effect of this magnitude given the observed overall relapse rates (SAS PROC POWER; Hsieh & Lavori, 2000).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Initial Severity and Depressive Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Antidepressant Medications: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis
Auteurs
Jay C. Fournier
Nicholas R. Forand
Zheng Wang
Zhexuan Li
Satish Iyengar
Robert J. DeRubeis
Richard Shelton
Jay Amsterdam
Robin B. Jarrett
Jeffrey R. Vittengl
Zindel Segal
Sona Dimidjian
M. Tracie Shea
Keith S. Dobson
Steven D. Hollon
Publicatiedatum
15-01-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10281-x