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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10578-017-0710-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.
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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 45 KB)10578_2017_710_MOESM1_ESM.doc
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- Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Susan Shur-Fen Gau
- Springer US