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Research on indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence and its association with helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood and the well-being of parents and emerging adult children is limited. In this study, we examined (1) the association between indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence and helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood, (2) the association between indulgent parenting and parents’ parenting stress and negative well-being, and (3) whether helicopter parenting mediated the association between indulgent parenting and emerging adults’ psychological problems.
The sample was composed of 449 college students with a subsample of 142 parent-student dyads.
Results from analyses on parents (Part I, N = 142) and emerging adults (Part II, N = 449) suggested that (1) indulgent parenting in childhood and adolescence was associated with helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood (b = .69, p < .01 in Part I; b = .58, p < .01 in Part II), (2) there was a positive association between indulgent parenting and parents’ negative well-being (b = .26, p < .01 in Part I) and parenting stress (b = .29, p < .01 in Part I), and (3) helicopter parenting mediated the association between indulgent parenting and emerging adults’ depressive and anxiety symptoms and emotional dysregulation (.15, 95% CI .03 to .43 in Part II).
Implications for parenting and emerging adult health programs were discussed.
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- Indulgent Parenting, Helicopter Parenting, and Well-being of Parents and Emerging Adults
Carol A. Darling
Frank D. Fincham
Ross W. May
- Springer US