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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1/2013

01-01-2013

Individual Differences in the Development of Self-Regulation During Pre-adolescence: Connections to Context and Adjustment

Auteurs: Kevin M. King, Liliana J. Lengua, Kathryn C. Monahan

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 1/2013

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Abstract

Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children’s ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8–12 year-olds (T1 M = 9.5, SD = 1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence.
Voetnoten
1
To examine this possibility, we also examined models utilizing only child or maternal report and models utilizing child report for the predictors and maternal report for outcomes and vice-versa. We compared them to the models utilizing the combined reporter data. There were no consistent differences in the single or cross-reporter models (relative to the combined reporter models) that suggested that one reporter was superior to the other. Both the mean developmental trajectories of both impulsivity and effortful control and their degree of variability in slopes and intercepts was similar across maternal and child report, and similar to that observed in the combined report models. Moreover, all of the effects that were observed in the combined reporter model were observed in most models regardless of reporter, and there was no discernable pattern to suggest that one reporter was superior.
 
2
Because the current sample varied in age from 8 to 12 at the initial time point, we modeled change over time by wave rather than age, and regressed the slope and intercept factors on age to control for cohort effect. However, this approach might obscure some age-related differences in developmental trajectories. To test this, we restructured the data by age, and modeled change over time by age in an overlapping cohort design accounting for missing data using FIML. The best fitting models used data from ages 9 to 12, and replicated the current findings. In other words, modeling time by age rather than wave did not produce substantive differences in trajectories, predictors or outcomes.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Individual Differences in the Development of Self-Regulation During Pre-adolescence: Connections to Context and Adjustment
Auteurs
Kevin M. King
Liliana J. Lengua
Kathryn C. Monahan
Publicatiedatum
01-01-2013
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 1/2013
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9665-0

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