Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Increased intrasubject variability (ISV), or short-term, within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance is consistently found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with impairments in motor control, particularly in boys. The results of the few studies that have examined variability in self-generated motor output in children with ADHD have been inconsistent. The current study examined variability in motor control during a finger sequencing task among boys with and without ADHD as well as the relationship between intrasubject variability during motor and cognitive control tasks. Changes in performance over the course of the task and associations with ADHD symptom domains were also examined to elucidate the nature of impaired motor control in children with ADHD. Fifty-one boys (ages 8 to 12 years) participated in the study, including 28 boys with ADHD and 23 typically developing (TD) boys. Participants completed a finger sequencing task and a Go/No-Go task providing multiple measures of response speed and variability. Boys with ADHD were slower and more variable in both intertap interval on the finger sequencing task and reaction time on the Go/No-Go task, with measures of speed and variability correlated across the two tasks. For the entire cohort, the only unique predictor of parent ratings of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms was variability in intertap interval during finger sequencing, whereas inattentive symptoms were only predicted by reaction time variability on the Go/No-Go task. These findings suggest that inefficient motor control is implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, particularly in regards to developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.
Anstey, K. J., Mack, H. A., Christensen, H., Li, S. C., Reglade-Meslin, C., Maller, J., et al. (2007). Corpus callosum size, reaction time speed and variability in mild cognitive disorders and in a normative sample. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1911–1920. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.11.020. PubMedCrossRef
Brossard-Racine, M., Shevell, M., Snider, L., Belanger, S. A., & Majnemer, A. (2012). Motor skills of children newly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder prior to and following treatment with stimulant medication. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 2080–2087. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.06.003. PubMedCrossRef
Conners, C. K. (2002). Conners’ rating scales- revised. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Denckla, M. B. (1985). Revised neurological examination for subtle signs. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 773–800. PubMed
Douglas, V. I. (1999). Cognitive control processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 105–138). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishing. CrossRef
DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (1998). ADHD rating scale—IV. New York: Guilford Press.
Epstein, J. N., Langberg, J. M., Rosen, P. J., Graham, A., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., et al. (2011). Evidence for higher reaction time variability for children with ADHD on a range of cognitive tasks including reward and event rate manipulations. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Neuropsychology, 25, 427–441. doi: 10.1037/a0022155. PubMedCrossRef
Fliers, E., Rommelse, N., Vermeulen, S. H., Altink, M., Buschgens, C. J., Faraone, S. V., et al. (2008). Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender. Journal of Neural Transmission, 115, 211–220. doi: 10.1007/s00702-007-0827-0. PubMedCrossRef
Frazier-Wood, A. C., Bralten, J., Arias-Vasquez, A., Luman, M., Ooterlaan, J., Sergeant, J., et al. (2012). Neuropsychological intra-individual variability explains unique genetic variance of ADHD and shows suggestive linkage to chromosomes 12, 13, and 17. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 159B, 131–140. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32018. CrossRef
Heathcote, A., Popiel, S. J., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (1991). Analysis of response-time distributions, an example using the Stroop Task. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 340–347. CrossRef
Lahey, B. B., Miller, T. I., Gordon, R. A., & Riley, A. W. (1999). Developmental epidemiology of the disruptive behavioral disorders. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 23–48). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. CrossRef
Mostofsky, S. H., Schafer, J. G., Abrams, M. T., Goldberg, M. C., Flower, A. A., Boyce, A., et al. (2003). fMRI evidence that the neural basis of response inhibition is task-dependent. Brain Research, 17, 419–430. PubMed
Mostofsky, S. H., Rimrodt, S. L., Schafer, J. G., Boyce, A., Goldberg, M. C., Pekar, J. J., et al. (2006). Atypical motor and sensory cortex activation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of simple sequential finger tapping. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 48–56. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.011. PubMedCrossRef
Reich, W., Welner, Z., & Herjanic, B. (1997). The diagnostic interview for children and adolescents-IV. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems.
Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & van der Meere, J. (1999). Information processing and energetic factors in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. Quay & A. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104). New York: Kluwer. CrossRef
Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., et al. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 19649–19654. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707741104. PubMedCrossRef
Suskauer, S. J., Simmonds, D. J., Caffo, B. S., Denckla, M. B., Pekar, J. J., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2008). fMRI of intrasubject variability in ADHD: anomalous premotor activity with prefrontal compensation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1141–1150. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825b1f. PubMedCrossRef
Suskauer, S. J., Simmonds, D. J., Fotedar, S., Blankner, J. G., Pekar, J. J., Denckla, M. B., et al. (2008). Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for abnormalities in response selection in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: differences in activation associated with response inhibition but not habitual motor response. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 478–493. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20032. PubMedCrossRef
Vaurio, R. G., Simmonds, D. J., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2009). Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across response inhibition tasks with different cognitive demands. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2389–2396. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.01.022. PubMedCrossRef
Wechsler, D. L. (2002). Wechsler individual achievement test - second edition (WIAT-II). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. L. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children - fourth edition (WISC-IV). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Willcutt, E. G., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Nigg, J. T., & Sergeant, J. A. (2008). Recent developments in neuropsychological models of childhood psychiatric disorders. In T. Banaschewski & L. A. Rohde (Eds.), Biological child psychiatry: recent trends and developments (Vol. 24) (pp. 194–226). Basel: Karger.
- Increased Intrasubject Variability in Boys with ADHD Across Tests of Motor and Cognitive Control
Keri Shiels Rosch
Stewart H. Mostofsky
- Springer US