## Experiment 1

## Methods

### Power analysis

^{1}The required input parameters for this procedure are α, the degrees of freedom (df) for the F-test, and the non-centrality parameter λ. For within-subject effects, λ is a function of the sample size n, the number of repeated measures m, the effect size f, and the repeated-measures correlation ρ (see Faul et al. 2007). Because λ and the df for the error term depend on the sample size, the power analysis requires to increase n in a step-wise fashion until the target power is reached. For Experiment 1, we assumed a medium-sized color by validity interaction effect of f = 0.25 and a repeated-measure correlation of ρ = 0.50. The number of repeated measures for the tested 2 \(\times\) 2 interaction was m = 4. Moreover, we set the type-I error probability to α = 0.05 and our target power to 1-β = 0.95. The power analysis indicated that this target power would be reached with a minimum sample size of n = 28 per condition (λ = 14, df

_{effect}= 1, df

_{error}= 27), i.e., a sample size of N = 84 in total.

### Participants

_{1}= 24, red–gray condition: n

_{2}= 26, green–red condition: n

_{3}= 27).

^{2}

### Materials

### Design

### Procedure

## Results

### Ishihara color vision test

^{3}Participants with more than two incorrect responses (n = 5) were excluded from analyses (see participant section).

### Perceptual fluency test

^{4}Moreover, there was no significant color by target interaction in any condition, Fs ≤ 1.62, ps ≥ 0.214, \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) s ≤ 0.06, CIs [0.00, 0.20], [0.00, 0.15], and [0.00, 0.25].

### Stroop task

#### Response times

Block | Validity | Color | Green-gray condition | Red-gray condition | Green–red condition | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

RTs in ms | Errors in % | RTs in ms | Errors in % | RTs in ms | Errors in % | |||

1 | true | green | 1041 (294) | 4.0 (4.2) | – | – | 1046 (285) | 4.8 (5.1) |

gray | 1025 (265) | 2.7 (3.9) | 1001 (148) | 3.5 (5.1) | – | – | ||

red | – | – | 1010 (156) | 4.2 (4.2) | 1076 (320) | 4.3 (5.8) | ||

false | green | 1081 (291) | 1.0 (2.1) | – | – | 1092 (254) | 1.5 (2.7) | |

gray | 1078 (295) | 1.7 (3.5) | 1051 (178) | 2.3 (3.5) | – | – | ||

red | – | – | 1059 (192) | 1.5 (3.1) | 1098 (318) | 2.2 (4.0) | ||

2 | true | green | 727 (129) | 13.5 (7.0) | – | – | 738 (125) | 14.1 (10.0) |

gray | 732 (125) | 15.2 (10.8) | 743 (89) | 12.1 (9.6) | – | – | ||

red | – | – | 736 (85) | 13.5 (10.0) | 758 (149) | 18.7 (11.6) | ||

false | green | 786 (153) | 17.1 (10.8) | – | – | 781 (140) | 18.1 (15.5) | |

gray | 795 (155) | 17.9 (10.0) | 780 (97) | 15.4 (9.3) | – | – | ||

red | – | – | 782 (100) | 12.5 (9.6) | 777 (146) | 17.2 (11.0) |

#### Accuracy

### Explicit color–validity associations

## Discussion

## Experiment 2

## Methods

### Power analysis

_{effect}= 2, df

_{error}= 66).

### Participants

### Materials

### Design and procedure

## Results

### Ishihara color vision test

### Perceptual fluency test

### Stroop task

#### Response times

Block | Validity | Color | RTs in ms | Errors in % |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | True | Green | 890 (168) | 4.7 (6.6) |

Gray | 922 (179) | 4.7 (7.3) | ||

Red | 895 (153) | 5.4 (6.5) | ||

False | Green | 955 (169) | 4.1 (5.6) | |

Gray | 979 (186) | 3.5 (6.6) | ||

Red | 975 (195) | 3.5 (5.8) | ||

2 | True | Green | 655 (88) | 16.7 (11.6) |

Gray | 661 (88) | 19.0 (12.9) | ||

Red | 671 (91) | 20.0 (14.0) | ||

False | Green | 713 (101) | 20.2 (17.4) | |

Gray | 717 (102) | 19.6 (14.5) | ||

Red | 704 (97) | 19.4 (14.9) |

#### Accuracy

### Explicit color–validity associations

## Discussion

## Experiment 3

## Method

### Power analysis

### Participants

### Materials

### Design and procedure

## Results

### Ishihara color vision test

^{5}Four participants were excluded from all subsequent analyses because they had difficulties correctly identifying the numbers displayed on at least two of the six color plates (see participant section).

### Perceptual fluency test

### Stroop task

#### Response times

Block | Validity | Color | RTs in ms | Errors in % |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | True | Green | 665 (146) | 1.2 (2.9) |

Gray | 699 (124) | 1.2 (3.4) | ||

Red | 736 (158) | 4.7 (6.4) | ||

False | Green | 793 (155) | 16.5 (15.5) | |

Gray | 768 (192) | 8.3 (12.5) | ||

Red | 736 (163) | 6.2 (12.3) | ||

2 | True | Green | 510 (56) | 6.6 (7.6) |

Gray | 528 (56) | 9.1 (7.7) | ||

Red | 553 (61) | 25.2 (14.7) | ||

False | Green | 570 (75) | 36.0 (19.5) | |

Gray | 544 (67) | 16.7 (15.5) | ||

Red | 526 (56) | 13.8 (14.3) |