Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research 3/2017

08-12-2016

In 6- to 8-year-old children, cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life

Auteurs: Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Serge Brand, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Henner Hanssen, Uwe Pühse, Lukas Zahner

Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research | Uitgave 3/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Purpose

In children, the pathways by which physical activity and fitness are associated with physical and psychological wellbeing are still not fully understood. The present study examines for the first time in young children whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity moderate the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life.

Methods

Three hundred and seventy-eight children (188 girls, 190 boys, M age = 7.27 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Parental education, gender, age, severity of life events, health-related quality of life and physical activity were assessed via parental questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with the 20 m shuttle run test. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test whether physical activity and fitness interacted with critical life events to explain health-related quality of life.

Results

When exposed to critical life events, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher levels of psychological wellbeing, relative to their less fit peers. On the other hand, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher physical wellbeing and more positive friendship relationships when severity of life events was low. A similar moderation effect was found for physical activity with overall quality of life as outcome.

Conclusions

Recent stressful experiences alone were not sufficient to explain negative health outcomes in young children. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels experienced lower psychological wellbeing when they were exposed to critical life events. More research is needed to find out whether similar findings emerge with objective physical activity measurements and when critical life events are assessed over longer periods of time.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 886–895.CrossRefPubMed Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 886–895.CrossRefPubMed
2.
go back to reference Janssen, I., & Leblanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Janssen, I., & Leblanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
3.
go back to reference Hartmann, T., Zahner, L., Puhse, U., Schneider, S., Puder, J. J., & Kriemler, S. (2010). Physical activity, bodyweight, health and fear of negative evaluation in primary school children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, e27–e34.CrossRefPubMed Hartmann, T., Zahner, L., Puhse, U., Schneider, S., Puder, J. J., & Kriemler, S. (2010). Physical activity, bodyweight, health and fear of negative evaluation in primary school children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, e27–e34.CrossRefPubMed
4.
go back to reference Liu, J., Sekine, M., Tatsuse, T., Fujimura, Y., Hamanishi, S., Lu, F., et al. (2015). Outdoor physical activity and its relation with self-reported health in Japanese children: Results from the Toyama birth cohort study. Child Care and Health Development, 41, 920–927.CrossRef Liu, J., Sekine, M., Tatsuse, T., Fujimura, Y., Hamanishi, S., Lu, F., et al. (2015). Outdoor physical activity and its relation with self-reported health in Japanese children: Results from the Toyama birth cohort study. Child Care and Health Development, 41, 920–927.CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Alonso-Fernandez, N., Jimenez-Garcia, R., Alonso-Fernandez, L., Hernandez-Barrera, V., & Palacios-Cena, D. (2015). Health factors related to physical activity among children and adolescents: Results from Spanish National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011/12. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 20, 193–202.CrossRefPubMed Alonso-Fernandez, N., Jimenez-Garcia, R., Alonso-Fernandez, L., Hernandez-Barrera, V., & Palacios-Cena, D. (2015). Health factors related to physical activity among children and adolescents: Results from Spanish National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011/12. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 20, 193–202.CrossRefPubMed
6.
go back to reference Hartmann, T., Pühse, U., Puder, J. J., Kriemler, S., & Zahner, L. (2010). Effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical and psychosocial quality of life in elementary school children: A cluster-randomized trial. Pediatric Exercise Science, 22, 511–522.CrossRefPubMed Hartmann, T., Pühse, U., Puder, J. J., Kriemler, S., & Zahner, L. (2010). Effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical and psychosocial quality of life in elementary school children: A cluster-randomized trial. Pediatric Exercise Science, 22, 511–522.CrossRefPubMed
7.
go back to reference Chaddock-Heyman, L., Erickson, K. I., Holtrop, J. L., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., et al. (2014). Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 584.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Chaddock-Heyman, L., Erickson, K. I., Holtrop, J. L., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., et al. (2014). Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 584.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
8.
go back to reference Hanssen, H., Siegrist, M., Neidig, M., Renner, A., Birzele, P., Siclovan, A., et al. (2012). Retinal vessel diameter, obesity and metabolic risk factors in school children (JuvenTUM 3). Atherosclerosis, 221, 242–248.CrossRefPubMed Hanssen, H., Siegrist, M., Neidig, M., Renner, A., Birzele, P., Siclovan, A., et al. (2012). Retinal vessel diameter, obesity and metabolic risk factors in school children (JuvenTUM 3). Atherosclerosis, 221, 242–248.CrossRefPubMed
9.
go back to reference Ekeland, E., Heian, F., & Hagen, K. B. (2005). Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 792–798.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Ekeland, E., Heian, F., & Hagen, K. B. (2005). Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 792–798.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
10.
go back to reference Gerber, M., & Pühse, U. (2009). Do exercise and fitness protect against stress-induced health complaints? A review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37, 801–819.CrossRefPubMed Gerber, M., & Pühse, U. (2009). Do exercise and fitness protect against stress-induced health complaints? A review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37, 801–819.CrossRefPubMed
12.
go back to reference Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447–466.CrossRefPubMed Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447–466.CrossRefPubMed
13.
go back to reference Gerber, M., Brand, S., Elliott, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Pühse, U. (2014). Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: An exploratory cross-sectional study with Swiss university students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119, 679–697.CrossRefPubMed Gerber, M., Brand, S., Elliott, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Pühse, U. (2014). Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: An exploratory cross-sectional study with Swiss university students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119, 679–697.CrossRefPubMed
14.
go back to reference Yin, Z., Davis, C. L., Moore, J. B., & Treiber, F. A. (2005). Physical activity buffers the effects of chronic stress on adiposity in youth. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 29–36.CrossRefPubMed Yin, Z., Davis, C. L., Moore, J. B., & Treiber, F. A. (2005). Physical activity buffers the effects of chronic stress on adiposity in youth. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 29–36.CrossRefPubMed
15.
go back to reference Moksnes, U. K., Lillefjell, M., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). The relationship between stress, leisure time vigorous physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Behavior. doi:10.4172/jcalb.1000120. Moksnes, U. K., Lillefjell, M., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). The relationship between stress, leisure time vigorous physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Behavior. doi:10.​4172/​jcalb.​1000120.
16.
go back to reference Brown, J. D., & Lawton, M. (1986). Stress and well-being in adolescents: The moderating role of physical exercise. Journal of Human Stress, 12, 125–131.PubMed Brown, J. D., & Lawton, M. (1986). Stress and well-being in adolescents: The moderating role of physical exercise. Journal of Human Stress, 12, 125–131.PubMed
17.
go back to reference Brown, J. D., & Siegel, J. M. (1988). Exercise as a buffer of life stress: A prospective study of adolescent health. Health Psychology, 7, 341–355.CrossRefPubMed Brown, J. D., & Siegel, J. M. (1988). Exercise as a buffer of life stress: A prospective study of adolescent health. Health Psychology, 7, 341–355.CrossRefPubMed
18.
go back to reference Norris, R., Carroll, D., & Cochrane, R. (1992). The effects of physical activity and exercise training on psychological stress and well-being in an adolescent population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 55–65.CrossRefPubMed Norris, R., Carroll, D., & Cochrane, R. (1992). The effects of physical activity and exercise training on psychological stress and well-being in an adolescent population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 55–65.CrossRefPubMed
19.
go back to reference Haugland, S., Wold, B., & Torsheim, T. (2003). Relieving the pressure? The role of physical activity in the relationship between school-related stress and adolescent health complaints. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 127–135.CrossRefPubMed Haugland, S., Wold, B., & Torsheim, T. (2003). Relieving the pressure? The role of physical activity in the relationship between school-related stress and adolescent health complaints. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 127–135.CrossRefPubMed
20.
go back to reference Sigfusdottir, I. D., Asgeirsdottir, B. B., Sigurdsson, J. F., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2011). Physical activity buffers the effects of family conflict on depressed mood: A study on adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 895–902.CrossRefPubMed Sigfusdottir, I. D., Asgeirsdottir, B. B., Sigurdsson, J. F., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2011). Physical activity buffers the effects of family conflict on depressed mood: A study on adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 895–902.CrossRefPubMed
21.
go back to reference Gerber, M., & Pühse, U. (2008). Don’t crack under pressure!—The influence of leisure time physical activity and self-esteem on the stress-illness-relationship among adolescents. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 363–369.CrossRefPubMed Gerber, M., & Pühse, U. (2008). Don’t crack under pressure!—The influence of leisure time physical activity and self-esteem on the stress-illness-relationship among adolescents. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 363–369.CrossRefPubMed
22.
go back to reference Kelleher, K. J., McInerny, T. K., Gardner, W. P., William, P., Childs, G. E., & Wasserman, R. C. (2000). Increasing identification of psychosocial problems: 1979–1996. Pediatrics, 105, 1313–1321.CrossRefPubMed Kelleher, K. J., McInerny, T. K., Gardner, W. P., William, P., Childs, G. E., & Wasserman, R. C. (2000). Increasing identification of psychosocial problems: 1979–1996. Pediatrics, 105, 1313–1321.CrossRefPubMed
23.
go back to reference Pihlakoski, L., Sourander, A., Aromaa, M., Rautava, P., Helenius, H., & Sillanpää, M. (2006). The continuity of psychopathology from early childhood to preadolescence: A prospective cohort study of 3–12-year-old children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 409–417.CrossRefPubMed Pihlakoski, L., Sourander, A., Aromaa, M., Rautava, P., Helenius, H., & Sillanpää, M. (2006). The continuity of psychopathology from early childhood to preadolescence: A prospective cohort study of 3–12-year-old children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 409–417.CrossRefPubMed
24.
go back to reference Carlsson, E., Frostell, A., Ludvigsson, J., & Faresjo, M. (2014). Psychological stress in children may alter the immune response. Journal of Immunology, 192, 2071–2081.CrossRef Carlsson, E., Frostell, A., Ludvigsson, J., & Faresjo, M. (2014). Psychological stress in children may alter the immune response. Journal of Immunology, 192, 2071–2081.CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., Gipson, P. Y., Campbell, A. J., et al. (2006). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Evidence of moderating and mediating effects. Clinical Psychological Journal, 26, 257–283. Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., Gipson, P. Y., Campbell, A. J., et al. (2006). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Evidence of moderating and mediating effects. Clinical Psychological Journal, 26, 257–283.
26.
go back to reference Compas, B. E., Orosan, P. G., & Grant, K. E. (1993). Adolescent stress and coping: Implications for psychopathology during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 331–349.CrossRefPubMed Compas, B. E., Orosan, P. G., & Grant, K. E. (1993). Adolescent stress and coping: Implications for psychopathology during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 331–349.CrossRefPubMed
27.
go back to reference Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 577–584.CrossRefPubMed Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 577–584.CrossRefPubMed
28.
go back to reference Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947–957.PubMedPubMedCentral Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947–957.PubMedPubMedCentral
29.
go back to reference Luthar, S. S. (Ed.). (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. New York: Cambridge University Press. Luthar, S. S. (Ed.). (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. New York: Cambridge University Press.
30.
go back to reference Barber, B. A., Kohl, K. L., Kassam-Adams, N., & Gold, J. I. (2014). Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 21, 66–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Barber, B. A., Kohl, K. L., Kassam-Adams, N., & Gold, J. I. (2014). Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 21, 66–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
31.
go back to reference Hjern, A., Alfven, G., & Ostberg, V. (2008). School stressors, psychological complaints and psychosomatic pain. Acta Paediatrica, 97, 112–117.CrossRefPubMed Hjern, A., Alfven, G., & Ostberg, V. (2008). School stressors, psychological complaints and psychosomatic pain. Acta Paediatrica, 97, 112–117.CrossRefPubMed
32.
go back to reference Bakoula, C., Kolaitis, G., Veltsista, A., Gika, A., & Chrousos, G. P. (2009). Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: A Greek prospective, longitudinal study. Stress, 12, 486–498.CrossRefPubMed Bakoula, C., Kolaitis, G., Veltsista, A., Gika, A., & Chrousos, G. P. (2009). Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: A Greek prospective, longitudinal study. Stress, 12, 486–498.CrossRefPubMed
33.
go back to reference Eskelinen, M., & Ollonen, P. Life stress due to losses and deficit in childhood and adolescence as breast cancer risk factor: A prospective case-control study in Kuopio, Finland. Anticancer Research, 30, 4303–4308. Eskelinen, M., & Ollonen, P. Life stress due to losses and deficit in childhood and adolescence as breast cancer risk factor: A prospective case-control study in Kuopio, Finland. Anticancer Research, 30, 4303–4308.
34.
go back to reference Imhof, K., Zahner, L., Schmidt-Trucksäss, A., & Hanssen, H. (2016). Association of body composition and blood pressure categories with retinal vessel diameters in primary school children. Hypertension Research. doi:10.1038/hr.2015.1159.PubMed Imhof, K., Zahner, L., Schmidt-Trucksäss, A., & Hanssen, H. (2016). Association of body composition and blood pressure categories with retinal vessel diameters in primary school children. Hypertension Research. doi:10.​1038/​hr.​2015.​1159.PubMed
35.
go back to reference Imhof, K., Zahner, L., Schmidt-Trucksäss, A., Faude, O., & Hanssen, H. (2016). Influence of physical fitness and activity behavior on retinal vessel diameters in primary schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. doi:10.1111/sms.12499.PubMed Imhof, K., Zahner, L., Schmidt-Trucksäss, A., Faude, O., & Hanssen, H. (2016). Influence of physical fitness and activity behavior on retinal vessel diameters in primary schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. doi:10.​1111/​sms.​12499.PubMed
36.
go back to reference Imhof, K., Faude, O., Donath, L., Bean-Eisenhut, S., Hanssen, H., & Zahner, L. (2016). The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34, 1271–1280.CrossRefPubMed Imhof, K., Faude, O., Donath, L., Bean-Eisenhut, S., Hanssen, H., & Zahner, L. (2016). The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34, 1271–1280.CrossRefPubMed
37.
go back to reference Johnson, J. H., & McCutcheon, S. (1980). Assessing life stress in older children and adolescents: Preliminary findings with the Life Events Checklist. In G. Sarason & C. Spielberg (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (pp. 111–125). Washington: Hemisphere Publishing. Johnson, J. H., & McCutcheon, S. (1980). Assessing life stress in older children and adolescents: Preliminary findings with the Life Events Checklist. In G. Sarason & C. Spielberg (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (pp. 111–125). Washington: Hemisphere Publishing.
38.
go back to reference Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Gipson, P. Y. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412–425.CrossRefPubMed Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Gipson, P. Y. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412–425.CrossRefPubMed
40.
go back to reference Brand, A. H., & Johnson, J. H. (1982). Note on reliability of the Life Events Checklist. Psychological Reports, 50, 1274.CrossRef Brand, A. H., & Johnson, J. H. (1982). Note on reliability of the Life Events Checklist. Psychological Reports, 50, 1274.CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Ravens-Sieberer, U., & Bullinger, M. (1998). Assessing health related quality of life in chronically ill children with the German KINDL: First psychometric and content analytical results. Quality of Life Research, 7, 399–407.CrossRefPubMed Ravens-Sieberer, U., & Bullinger, M. (1998). Assessing health related quality of life in chronically ill children with the German KINDL: First psychometric and content analytical results. Quality of Life Research, 7, 399–407.CrossRefPubMed
42.
go back to reference Bullinger, M., Brütt, A. L., Erhart, M., Ravens-Sieberer, U., & BELLA Study Group. (2008). Psychometric properties of the KINDL-R questionnaire: Results of the BELLA study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 125–132.CrossRefPubMed Bullinger, M., Brütt, A. L., Erhart, M., Ravens-Sieberer, U., & BELLA Study Group. (2008). Psychometric properties of the KINDL-R questionnaire: Results of the BELLA study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 125–132.CrossRefPubMed
43.
go back to reference Ravens-Sieberer, U., Ellert, U., & Erhart, M. (2007). Gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland: Eine Normstichprobe für Deutschland aus dem Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KIGGS) [Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents in Germany: Normative values for Germany based on the child and adolescent health survey (KIGGS)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, 50, 810–818.CrossRefPubMed Ravens-Sieberer, U., Ellert, U., & Erhart, M. (2007). Gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland: Eine Normstichprobe für Deutschland aus dem Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KIGGS) [Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents in Germany: Normative values for Germany based on the child and adolescent health survey (KIGGS)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, 50, 810–818.CrossRefPubMed
44.
go back to reference van Mechelen, W., Hlobil, H., & Kemper, H. C. G. (1986). Validation of two running tests as estimates of maximal aerobic power in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 503–506.CrossRef van Mechelen, W., Hlobil, H., & Kemper, H. C. G. (1986). Validation of two running tests as estimates of maximal aerobic power in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 503–506.CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Niederer, I., Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Bürgi, F., Ebenegger, V., Hartmann, T., et al. (2009). Influence of a lifestyle intervention in preschool children on physiological and psychological parameters (Ballabeina): Study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 9, 94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Niederer, I., Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Bürgi, F., Ebenegger, V., Hartmann, T., et al. (2009). Influence of a lifestyle intervention in preschool children on physiological and psychological parameters (Ballabeina): Study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 9, 94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
46.
go back to reference Lampert, T., Mensink, G., Romahn, N., & Woll, A. (2007). Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Ergebnisse des Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz, 50, 1–9. Lampert, T., Mensink, G., Romahn, N., & Woll, A. (2007). Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Ergebnisse des Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS). BundesgesundheitsblattGesundheitsforschungGesundheitsschutz, 50, 1–9.
47.
go back to reference Manz, K., Schlack, R., Poethko-Müller, C., Mensink, G., Finger, J., Lampert, T., et al. (2014). Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität und Nutzung elektronischer Medien im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Ergebnisse der KiGGS-Studie – Erste Folgebefragung (KiGGS Welle 1). Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz, 57, 840–848. Manz, K., Schlack, R., Poethko-Müller, C., Mensink, G., Finger, J., Lampert, T., et al. (2014). Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität und Nutzung elektronischer Medien im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Ergebnisse der KiGGS-Studie – Erste Folgebefragung (KiGGS Welle 1). BundesgesundheitsblattGesundheitsforschungGesundheitsschutz, 57, 840–848.
48.
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate analysis. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate analysis. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
49.
go back to reference Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.
50.
go back to reference Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
51.
go back to reference American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington: American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington: American Psychological Association.
52.
go back to reference Dawson, J. F. (2014). Moderation in management research. What, why, when and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 1–19.CrossRef Dawson, J. F. (2014). Moderation in management research. What, why, when and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 1–19.CrossRef
53.
go back to reference Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Schindler, C., Meyer, U., Hartmann, T., Hebestreit, H., et al. (2010). Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: Cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 340, c785.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kriemler, S., Zahner, L., Schindler, C., Meyer, U., Hartmann, T., Hebestreit, H., et al. (2010). Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: Cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 340, c785.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
54.
go back to reference Meyer, U., Schindler, C., Zahner, L., Ernst, D., Hebestreit, H., van Mechelen, W., et al. (2014). Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in children: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 9, e87929.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Meyer, U., Schindler, C., Zahner, L., Ernst, D., Hebestreit, H., van Mechelen, W., et al. (2014). Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in children: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 9, e87929.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
55.
go back to reference Swiss Federal Office of Sports. (2008). Gesundheitswirksame Bewegung (Health enhancing physical activity). Magglingen: BASPO. Swiss Federal Office of Sports. (2008). Gesundheitswirksame Bewegung (Health enhancing physical activity). Magglingen: BASPO.
56.
go back to reference Feizi, A., Najmi, B., Salesi, A., Chorami, M., & Hoveidafar, R. (2014). Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 19, 145–152.PubMedPubMedCentral Feizi, A., Najmi, B., Salesi, A., Chorami, M., & Hoveidafar, R. (2014). Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 19, 145–152.PubMedPubMedCentral
57.
go back to reference Stein, D. J., Scott, K., Abad, J. M. H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., et al. (2010). Early childhood adversity and later hypertension: Data from the World Mental Health Survey. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22, 19–28.PubMedPubMedCentral Stein, D. J., Scott, K., Abad, J. M. H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., et al. (2010). Early childhood adversity and later hypertension: Data from the World Mental Health Survey. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22, 19–28.PubMedPubMedCentral
58.
go back to reference McEwen, B. S. (2002). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: The good and bad side of the response to stress. Metabolism, 51, S2–S4.CrossRef McEwen, B. S. (2002). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: The good and bad side of the response to stress. Metabolism, 51, S2–S4.CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Bevans, K., Cerbone, A., & Overstreet, S. (2008). Relations between recurrent trauma exposure and recent life stress and salivary cortisol among children. Developmental Psychopathology, 20, 257–272.CrossRef Bevans, K., Cerbone, A., & Overstreet, S. (2008). Relations between recurrent trauma exposure and recent life stress and salivary cortisol among children. Developmental Psychopathology, 20, 257–272.CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Huss, D., Derefinko, K., Milich, R., Farzam, F., & Baumann, R. (2009). Examining the stress response and recovery among children with migraine. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 707–715.CrossRefPubMed Huss, D., Derefinko, K., Milich, R., Farzam, F., & Baumann, R. (2009). Examining the stress response and recovery among children with migraine. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 707–715.CrossRefPubMed
61.
go back to reference Rimmele, U., Seiler, R., Marti, B., Wirtz, P. H., Ehlert, U., & Heinrichs, M. (2009). The level of physical activity affects adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 190–198.CrossRefPubMed Rimmele, U., Seiler, R., Marti, B., Wirtz, P. H., Ehlert, U., & Heinrichs, M. (2009). The level of physical activity affects adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 190–198.CrossRefPubMed
62.
go back to reference Klaperski, S., von Dawans, B., Heinrichs, M., & Fuchs, R. (2013). Does the level of physical exercise affect physiological and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in women? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 266–274.CrossRef Klaperski, S., von Dawans, B., Heinrichs, M., & Fuchs, R. (2013). Does the level of physical exercise affect physiological and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in women? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 266–274.CrossRef
63.
go back to reference Martikainen, S., Pesonen, A. K., Lahti, J., Heinonen, K., Feldt, K., Pyhälä, R., et al. (2013). Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress. Journal of Clincal Endocrinology and Metabolism, 98, 619–627.CrossRef Martikainen, S., Pesonen, A. K., Lahti, J., Heinonen, K., Feldt, K., Pyhälä, R., et al. (2013). Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress. Journal of Clincal Endocrinology and Metabolism, 98, 619–627.CrossRef
64.
go back to reference Gerber, M., Brand, S., Feldmeth, A. K., Lang, C., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., et al. (2013). Adolescents with high mental toughness adapt better to perceived stress: A longitudinal study with Swiss vocational students. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 808–814.CrossRef Gerber, M., Brand, S., Feldmeth, A. K., Lang, C., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., et al. (2013). Adolescents with high mental toughness adapt better to perceived stress: A longitudinal study with Swiss vocational students. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 808–814.CrossRef
65.
go back to reference Brand, S., Kalak, N., Gerber, M., Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Pühse, U., et al. (2016). During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 905–915.CrossRefPubMed Brand, S., Kalak, N., Gerber, M., Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Pühse, U., et al. (2016). During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 905–915.CrossRefPubMed
66.
go back to reference Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., et al. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health, 29, 164–171.CrossRefPubMed Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., et al. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health, 29, 164–171.CrossRefPubMed
67.
go back to reference Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., & Alcaraz, J. E. (1993). Habitual physical activity and health-related physical fitness in fourth-grade children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 147, 890–896.PubMed Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., & Alcaraz, J. E. (1993). Habitual physical activity and health-related physical fitness in fourth-grade children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 147, 890–896.PubMed
68.
go back to reference Colley, R. C., Wong, S. L., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Connor Gorber, S., & Tremblay, M. S. (2012). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in Canadian children: Parent-report versus direct measures and relative associations with health risk. Health Reports, 23, 45–52.PubMed Colley, R. C., Wong, S. L., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Connor Gorber, S., & Tremblay, M. S. (2012). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in Canadian children: Parent-report versus direct measures and relative associations with health risk. Health Reports, 23, 45–52.PubMed
69.
go back to reference Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100, 126–131.PubMedPubMedCentral Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100, 126–131.PubMedPubMedCentral
70.
go back to reference Ekelund, U., Anderssen, S. A., Froberg, K., Sardinha, L. B., Andersen, L. B., Brage, S., et al. (2007). Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: The European Youth Heart Study. Diabetologia, 50, 1832–1840.CrossRefPubMed Ekelund, U., Anderssen, S. A., Froberg, K., Sardinha, L. B., Andersen, L. B., Brage, S., et al. (2007). Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: The European Youth Heart Study. Diabetologia, 50, 1832–1840.CrossRefPubMed
71.
go back to reference Bouchard, C., Malina, R. M., & Perusse, L. (1997). Genetics of fitness and physical activity (p. 408). Champaign: Human Kinetics. Bouchard, C., Malina, R. M., & Perusse, L. (1997). Genetics of fitness and physical activity (p. 408). Champaign: Human Kinetics.
72.
go back to reference O’Brien, R. W., & Iannotti, R. J. (1993). Differences in mothers’ and children’s perceptions of urban black children’s life stress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 543–557.CrossRef O’Brien, R. W., & Iannotti, R. J. (1993). Differences in mothers’ and children’s perceptions of urban black children’s life stress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 543–557.CrossRef
73.
go back to reference Gerber, M., Brand, S., Lindwall, M., Elliot, C., Kalak, N., Herrmann, C., et al. (2012). Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11, 571–581.PubMedPubMedCentral Gerber, M., Brand, S., Lindwall, M., Elliot, C., Kalak, N., Herrmann, C., et al. (2012). Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11, 571–581.PubMedPubMedCentral
74.
go back to reference Groeneveld, M. G., Vermeer, H. J., Linting, M., Noppe, G., van Rossum, E. F. C., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Children’s hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress at school entry. Stress, 16, 711–715.CrossRefPubMed Groeneveld, M. G., Vermeer, H. J., Linting, M., Noppe, G., van Rossum, E. F. C., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Children’s hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress at school entry. Stress, 16, 711–715.CrossRefPubMed
75.
go back to reference Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Brand, S. (2013). Both hair cortisol levels and perceived stress predict increased symptoms of depression: An exploratory study in young adults. Neuropsychobiology, 68, 100–109.CrossRefPubMed Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Brand, S. (2013). Both hair cortisol levels and perceived stress predict increased symptoms of depression: An exploratory study in young adults. Neuropsychobiology, 68, 100–109.CrossRefPubMed
76.
go back to reference Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 653–676.CrossRef Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 653–676.CrossRef
77.
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., & Rescorla, L. A. (2002). Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: Self, parent and teacher reports. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 194–203.CrossRef Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., & Rescorla, L. A. (2002). Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: Self, parent and teacher reports. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 194–203.CrossRef
78.
go back to reference Ford, B. Q., Mauss, I. B., Troy, A. S., Smolen, A., & Hankin, B. (2014). Emotion regulation moderates the risk associated with the 5-HTT gene and stress in children. Emotion, 14, 930–939.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Ford, B. Q., Mauss, I. B., Troy, A. S., Smolen, A., & Hankin, B. (2014). Emotion regulation moderates the risk associated with the 5-HTT gene and stress in children. Emotion, 14, 930–939.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
79.
go back to reference Sirard, J. R., & Pate, R. R. (2001). Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Sports Medicine, 31, 439–454.CrossRefPubMed Sirard, J. R., & Pate, R. R. (2001). Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Sports Medicine, 31, 439–454.CrossRefPubMed
80.
go back to reference Myers, J., McAuley, E., Lavie, C. J., Desprès, J. P., Arena, R., & Kokkinos, P. F. (2015). Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: Their independent and interwoven importance to health status. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57, 306–314.CrossRefPubMed Myers, J., McAuley, E., Lavie, C. J., Desprès, J. P., Arena, R., & Kokkinos, P. F. (2015). Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: Their independent and interwoven importance to health status. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57, 306–314.CrossRefPubMed
81.
go back to reference Lindwall, M., Ljung, T., Hadzibajramovic, E., & Jonsdottir, I. (2012). Self-reported physical activity and aerobic fitness are differently related to mental health. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5, 28–34.CrossRef Lindwall, M., Ljung, T., Hadzibajramovic, E., & Jonsdottir, I. (2012). Self-reported physical activity and aerobic fitness are differently related to mental health. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5, 28–34.CrossRef
82.
go back to reference McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376–390.CrossRefPubMed McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376–390.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
In 6- to 8-year-old children, cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life
Auteurs
Markus Gerber
Katharina Endes
Serge Brand
Christian Herrmann
Flora Colledge
Lars Donath
Oliver Faude
Henner Hanssen
Uwe Pühse
Lukas Zahner
Publicatiedatum
08-12-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer International Publishing
Gepubliceerd in
Quality of Life Research / Uitgave 3/2017
Print ISSN: 0962-9343
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2649
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-016-1472-6

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2017

Quality of Life Research 3/2017 Naar de uitgave