Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Children with autism often exhibit low levels of social engagement, decreased levels of eye contact, and low social affect. However, both the literature and our direct clinical observations suggest that some components of intervention procedures may result in improvement in child-initiated social areas. Using an ABAB research design with three children with autism, this study systematically assessed whether embedding social interactions into reinforcers, delivered during language intervention, would lead to increased levels of child-initiated social behaviors. We compared this condition with a language intervention condition that did not embed social interactions into the reinforcers. Results indicated that embedding social interactions into the reinforcers resulted in increases in child-initiated social engagement during communication, improved nonverbal dyadic orienting, and improvements in general child affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnosistic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. text revision.
Barlow, D. H., & Hersen, M. (1984). Single case experimental design: Strategies for studying behavior change (2nd ed.). New York: Pergamon.
Busk, P. L., & Serlin, R. C. (1992). Meta-analysis for single-case research. In T. R. Kratochwill & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Single-case research designs and analysis: New directions for psychology and education (pp. 187–212). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Garfin, D. G., & Lord, C. (1986). Communication as a social problem in autism. In E. Schoplet & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Social behavior in autism (pp. 133–152). New York: Plenum Press.
Harris, S. L., & Weiss, M. J. (2007). Right from the start: Behavioral intervention for young children with autism. Topics in Autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autism disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.
Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2006). Pivotal response treatments for autism: Communication, social, and academic development. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Koegel, L. K., & LaZebnik, C. (2009). Growing up on the spectrum: A guide to life, love, and learning for teens and young adults with autism and Asperger’s. New York: Viking Penguin.
Koegel, L. K., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., & Koegel, R. L. (1994). Autism: Social communication difficulties and related behaviors. In V. B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Advanced abnormal psychology (pp. 182–206). New York: Plenum.
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., & DiLavore, P. C. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1005592401947. PubMedCrossRef
Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. doi: 10.1007/BF02172145. PubMedCrossRef
Mundy, P., & Sigman, M. (1989). Specifying the nature of social impairment in autism. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism: Nature, diagnosis, and intervention (pp. 3–21). New York: Guilford.
Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., Laurent, A. C., & Rydell, P. J. (2006). The SCERTS model: A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism spectrum disorders (Vol. 1). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Skinner, B. F. (1982). Contrived reinforcement. The Behavior Analyst, 5(1), 3–8.
Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (survey form). Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.
Trevarthen, C., & Hubley, P. (1978). Secondary intersubjectivity: Confidence, confiding and acts of meaning in the first year. In A. Lock (Ed.), Action, gesture and symbol. London: Academic Press.
Vernon, T. W. (2009). Assessing the transactional benefits of parent-delivered embedded social interactions with children with autism. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Volkmar, F. R., & Klin, A. (1994). Social development in autism: Historical and clinical perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental functions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Werner, H., & Kaplan, B. (1963). Symbol formation. Oxford, England: Wiley.
Whalen, C., Schreibman, L., & Ingersoll, B. (2006). The collateral effects of joint attention training on social initiations, positive affect, imitation, and spontaneous speech for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 655–664. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0108-z. PubMedCrossRef
- Improving Social Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Reinforcers with Embedded Social Interactions
Robert L. Koegel
Ty W. Vernon
Lynn K. Koegel
- Springer US