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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1/2017

15-12-2015 | Original Article

Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming

Auteurs: Ruta Lasauskaite, Guido H. E. Gendolla, Mylène Bolmont, Laure Freydefont

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1/2017

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Abstract

Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123–135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606–619, 2015).
Voetnoten
1
French words that were originally used as ease-related prime words: léger, relax, congé, evident; difficulty-related prime words: dur, examen, effort, épreuve; positive target words: gaité, heureux, joyeux, agréable; negative target words: pénible, accablé, abattu, triste.
 
2
Given that we had directed hypotheses, the p values of the paired t tests are one-tailed.
 
3
French words that were originally used as ease-related prime words: aisé, evident, relax, simple; difficulty-related prime words: ardu, complexe, compliqué, éprouvant.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming
Auteurs
Ruta Lasauskaite
Guido H. E. Gendolla
Mylène Bolmont
Laure Freydefont
Publicatiedatum
15-12-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1/2017
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-015-0732-3

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