Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation about imagined or slight defects in one’s appearance. In the present study, we evaluated explicit and implicit biases among individuals diagnosed with BDD (n = 15), individuals with subclinical BDD symptoms (n = 20), and healthy control participants (n = 20). Specifically, we used the Implicit Association Test [(IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, (1998) Journal of personality and social psychology, 74, 1464] to measure automatic associations related to self-esteem (evaluations of the self vs. others as good vs. bad) and the importance of attractiveness (evaluations of attractiveness vs. kindness as important vs. meaninglessness). Results indicated that, as predicted, BDD participants had significantly lower implicit self-esteem, relative to healthy control participants, and the subclinical BDD participants were intermediate between these groups. Further, lower implicit self-esteem was positively related to each of the other implicit and explicit BDD-relevant indicators, including explicit beliefs about attractiveness. However, no group differences were observed on the implicit importance of attractiveness task. These findings mostly support cognitive-behavioral models of BDD that suggest vulnerable persons exaggerate the significance of appearance for self-evaluation.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Allen, A., & Hollander, E. (2004). Similarities and differences between body dysmorphic disorder and other disorders. Psychiatric Annals, 34, 927–933.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Manual for the revised Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Buhlmann, U., Wilhelm, S., McNally, R. J., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Baer, L., & Jenike, M. A. (2002). Interpretive biases for ambiguous information in body dysmorphic disorder. CNS Spectrums, 7, 435–443. PubMed
Buhlmann U., & Wilhelm, S. (2004). Cognitive factors in body dysmorphic disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 34, 922–926.
Draine, S. (1999). Inquisit (Version 1.33) [Computer software]. Seattle, WA: Millisecond Software.
Ferring, D., & Filipp, S.-H. (1996). Messung des Selbstwertgefühls: Befunde zur Reliabilität, Validität und Stabilität der Rosenberg-Skala. Diagnostica, 42, 284–292.
Hautzinger, M., Bailer, M., Worall, H., & Keller, F. (1995). Beck Depressionsinventar. Bern: Huber.
Nosek, B. A. (2005). Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 565–584. CrossRef
Petrie, T. A., Rogers, R. L., Johnson, C. E., & Diehl, N. (1996). Development and validation of the Beliefs About Attractiveness Scale-Revised. Paper presented at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, Canada.
Phillips, K. A., Hollander, E., Rasmussen, S. A., Aronowitz, B. R., DeCaria, C., & Goodman, W. K. (1997). A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33, 17–22. PubMed
Phillips, K. A., McElroy, S. L., Keck, P. E. Jr., Pope, H. G. Jr. & Hudson, J. I. (1993). Body dysmorphic disorder: 30 cases of imagined ugliness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 302–308. PubMed
Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Revised edition. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Tanner, R. J., Stopa, L., & De Houwer, J. (2006). Implicit views of the self in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1397–1409.
Teachman, B. A. (2005). Information processing and anxiety sensitivity: Cognitive vulnerability to panic reflected in interpretation and memory biases. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 483–503. CrossRef
Teachman, B. A. & Allen, J. P. (in press). Development of social anxiety: Social interaction predictors of implicit and explicit fear of negative evaluation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
Wilhelm, S., & Neziroglu, F. (2002). Cognitive Theory of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. In Frost RO, Steketee G (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions: Theory, assessment and treatment. (pp. 203–214). Oxford: Elsevier Press.
Wilhelm, S. (2006). Feeling good about the way you look: A program for overcoming body image problems. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Wittchen, H. U., Zaudig, M., & Fydrich, T. (1997). Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview für DSM-IV-(SKID-I und SKID-II). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
- Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem and Attractiveness Beliefs among Individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Bethany A. Teachman
- Springer US