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29-07-2019 | Uitgave 12/2019

Quality of Life Research 12/2019

Impact of pharmaceutical care on mental well-being and perceived health among community-dwelling individuals with type 2 diabetes

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 12/2019
Zheng Kang Lum, Melanie Yee Lee Siaw, Michelle Jia Xin Lee, Zexuan Koh, Parry Quan Zhang, Soo Kiang Eng, Swee Chin Tan, Joyce Yu-Chia Lee
Belangrijke opmerkingen
Zheng Kang Lum and Melanie Yee Lee Siaw are first authors.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



Mental well-being among community-dwelling individuals with type 2 diabetes has not been well established. The primary objective was to evaluate the change in the mental well-being of individuals with diabetes. The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between changes in mental well-being and perceived health over 6 months, and any interacting factors in this association.


This was a prospective, multicenter study. Community-dwelling individuals aged ≥ 21 years with type 2 diabetes were invited to meet with community pharmacists monthly for 6 months. Individuals who were unable to converse independently were excluded. A 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), measuring mental well-being was administered at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Perception of health was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension tool. Linear mixed model was used to analyze the change in mean GHQ and VAS scores. Association between the changes in GHQ and VAS scores was determined, and moderation analysis was conducted to elucidate the interacting variables of this association.


Ninety-six individuals (82.4%) were included for analysis. The mean age was 60.3 years with a baseline mean HbA1c of 7.6%. A mean GHQ score reduction of 1.36 (p = 0.022) was observed. This reduction of mean GHQ score was associated with the change in mean VAS score. Having a duration of diabetes diagnosis of < 3.2 years was identified as moderator of this association.


Effective integrated pharmaceutical care with individualized counseling on lifestyle management appeared to improve the mental health of community-dwelling individuals with diabetes on top of glycemic control.

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