The presence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, or the conditions themselves, contributes to lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. Although community-based lifestyle intervention programs have been shown to be effective for improving risk factors for these diseases, the impact of these interventions on HRQoL has rarely been described.
To examine changes in HRQoL following participation in the Group Lifestyle Balance program, a community translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention for adults with prediabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome.
Participants enrolled in the 12-month, 22-session intervention program (N = 223) completed the EuroQol Health Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Linear mixed-effects regression models determined change in EQ-5D-visual analog scale (VAS) and Index scores post-intervention.
Mean EQ-5D-VAS was improved by +7.38 (SE = 1.03) at 6 months and by +6.73 (SE = 1.06) at 12 months post-intervention (both; p < 0.0001). Mean changes in EQ-5D index values were +0.00 (SE = 0.01; NS) and +0.01 (SE = 0.01; p < 0.05), respectively. Adjusted for age, baseline score, and achieving intervention goals, mean change in EQ-5D-VAS was +11.83 (SE = 1.61) at 6 months and +11.23 (SE = 1.54) at 12 months (both; p < 0.0001). Adjusted mean change in EQ-5D index value was +0.04 (SE = 0.01) at 6 months and +0.05 (SE = 0.01) at 12 months (both; p < 0.01).
Participation in a community lifestyle intervention program resulted in improved HRQoL among adults with prediabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome. These benefits to HRQoL, together with improved clinical and behavioral outcomes, should increase the appeal of such programs for improving health.